1,965 research outputs found

### Spectral up- and downshifting of Akhmediev breathers under wind forcing

We experimentally and numerically investigate the effect of wind forcing on
the spectral dynamics of Akhmediev breathers, a wave-type known to model the
modulation instability. We develop the wind model to the same order in
steepness as the higher order modifcation of the nonlinear Schroedinger
equation, also referred to as the Dysthe equation. This results in an
asymmetric wind term in the higher order, in addition to the leading order wind
forcing term. The derived model is in good agreement with laboratory
experiments within the range of the facility's length. We show that the leading
order forcing term amplifies all frequencies equally and therefore induces only
a broadening of the spectrum while the asymmetric higher order term in the
model enhances higher frequencies more than lower ones. Thus, the latter term
induces a permanent upshift of the spectral mean. On the other hand, in
contrast to the direct effect of wind forcing, wind can indirectly lead to
frequency downshifts, due to dissipative effects such as wave breaking, or
through amplification of the intrinsic spectral asymmetry of the Dysthe
equation. Furthermore, the definitions of the up- and downshift in terms of
peak- and mean frequencies, that are critical to relate our work to previous
results, are highlighted and discussed.Comment: 30 pages, 11 figure

### From extended phase space dynamics to fluid theory

We derive a fluid theory for spin-1/2 particles starting from an extended
kinetic model based on a spin-projected density matrix formalism. The evolution
equation for the spin density is found to contain a pressure-like term. We give
an example where this term is important by looking at a linear mode previously
found in a spin kinetic model.Comment: 4 page

### Nonlinear stage of Benjamin-Feir instability in forced/damped deep water waves

We study a three-wave truncation of a recently proposed damped/forced
high-order nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation for deep-water gravity waves under
the effect of wind and viscosity. The evolution of the norm (wave-action) and
spectral mean of the full model are well captured by the reduced dynamics.
Three regimes are found for the wind-viscosity balance: we classify them
according to the attractor in the phase-plane of the truncated system and to
the shift of the spectral mean. A downshift can coexist with both net forcing
and damping, i.e., attraction to period-1 or period-2 solutions. Upshift is
associated with stronger winds, i.e., to a net forcing where the attractor is
always a period-1 solution. The applicability of our classification to
experiments in long wave-tanks is verified.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

### Comparative and statistical analysis between the CERN conference database and three other bases

This is a comparison between three scientific conference databases and CERN data. High Energy Physics institutes DESY and SLAC databases and the STN-FIZ commercial one's are described and analysed by statistical tables. We plan to work out a co-operation policy especially with DESY for exchange or data import

### Research on turbulence in plasma

The plasma turbulence research program at William and Mary is discussed. The search has been less for phenomena to explain than for nontrivial magnetohydrodynamic processes in the fully turbulent domain that can be understood. Two examples are used to illustrate this: (1) development of anisotropy in the presence of a strong do magnetic field; and (2) the decay of an MHD turbulent field to a dynamically aligned state with velocity field and magnetic fields parallel or antiparallel

### On turbulent entrainment and dissipation in dilute polymer solutions

We present a comparative experimental study of a turbulent flow developing in clear water and dilute polymer solutions (25 and 50 wppm polyethylene oxide). The flow is forced by a planar grid that oscillates vertically with stroke S and frequency f in a square container of initially still fluid. Two-component velocity fields are measured in a vertical plane passing through the center of the tank by using time resolved particle image velocimetry. After the forcing is initiated, a turbulent layer develops that is separated from the initially irrotational fluid by a sharp interface, the so-called turbulent/nonturbulent interface (TNTI). The turbulent region grows in time through entrainment of surrounding fluid until the fluid in the whole container is in turbulent motion. From the comparison of the experiments in clear water and polymer solutions we conclude: (i) Polymer additives modify the large scale shape of the TNTI. (ii) Both, in water and in the polymer solution the mean depth of the turbulent layer, H(t), follows the theoretical prediction for Newtonian fluids H(t)∞√Kt, where K∞S^2f is the “grid action.” (iii) We find a larger grid action for dilute polymer solutions than for water. As a consequence, the turbulent kinetic energy of the flow increases and the rate of energy input becomes higher. (iv) The entrainment rate β=v_e/v_(rms) (where v_e=dH/dt is the interface propagation velocity and v_(rms) is the root mean square of the vertical velocity) is lower for polymers (β_p≈0.7) than for water (β_w≈0.8). The measured values for β are in good agreement with similarity arguments, from which we estimate that in our experiment about 28% of the input energy is dissipated by polymers

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