1,965 research outputs found

    Spectral up- and downshifting of Akhmediev breathers under wind forcing

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    We experimentally and numerically investigate the effect of wind forcing on the spectral dynamics of Akhmediev breathers, a wave-type known to model the modulation instability. We develop the wind model to the same order in steepness as the higher order modifcation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, also referred to as the Dysthe equation. This results in an asymmetric wind term in the higher order, in addition to the leading order wind forcing term. The derived model is in good agreement with laboratory experiments within the range of the facility's length. We show that the leading order forcing term amplifies all frequencies equally and therefore induces only a broadening of the spectrum while the asymmetric higher order term in the model enhances higher frequencies more than lower ones. Thus, the latter term induces a permanent upshift of the spectral mean. On the other hand, in contrast to the direct effect of wind forcing, wind can indirectly lead to frequency downshifts, due to dissipative effects such as wave breaking, or through amplification of the intrinsic spectral asymmetry of the Dysthe equation. Furthermore, the definitions of the up- and downshift in terms of peak- and mean frequencies, that are critical to relate our work to previous results, are highlighted and discussed.Comment: 30 pages, 11 figure

    From extended phase space dynamics to fluid theory

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    We derive a fluid theory for spin-1/2 particles starting from an extended kinetic model based on a spin-projected density matrix formalism. The evolution equation for the spin density is found to contain a pressure-like term. We give an example where this term is important by looking at a linear mode previously found in a spin kinetic model.Comment: 4 page

    Nonlinear stage of Benjamin-Feir instability in forced/damped deep water waves

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    We study a three-wave truncation of a recently proposed damped/forced high-order nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation for deep-water gravity waves under the effect of wind and viscosity. The evolution of the norm (wave-action) and spectral mean of the full model are well captured by the reduced dynamics. Three regimes are found for the wind-viscosity balance: we classify them according to the attractor in the phase-plane of the truncated system and to the shift of the spectral mean. A downshift can coexist with both net forcing and damping, i.e., attraction to period-1 or period-2 solutions. Upshift is associated with stronger winds, i.e., to a net forcing where the attractor is always a period-1 solution. The applicability of our classification to experiments in long wave-tanks is verified.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    Comparative and statistical analysis between the CERN conference database and three other bases

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    This is a comparison between three scientific conference databases and CERN data. High Energy Physics institutes DESY and SLAC databases and the STN-FIZ commercial one's are described and analysed by statistical tables. We plan to work out a co-operation policy especially with DESY for exchange or data import

    Research on turbulence in plasma

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    The plasma turbulence research program at William and Mary is discussed. The search has been less for phenomena to explain than for nontrivial magnetohydrodynamic processes in the fully turbulent domain that can be understood. Two examples are used to illustrate this: (1) development of anisotropy in the presence of a strong do magnetic field; and (2) the decay of an MHD turbulent field to a dynamically aligned state with velocity field and magnetic fields parallel or antiparallel

    On turbulent entrainment and dissipation in dilute polymer solutions

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    We present a comparative experimental study of a turbulent flow developing in clear water and dilute polymer solutions (25 and 50 wppm polyethylene oxide). The flow is forced by a planar grid that oscillates vertically with stroke S and frequency f in a square container of initially still fluid. Two-component velocity fields are measured in a vertical plane passing through the center of the tank by using time resolved particle image velocimetry. After the forcing is initiated, a turbulent layer develops that is separated from the initially irrotational fluid by a sharp interface, the so-called turbulent/nonturbulent interface (TNTI). The turbulent region grows in time through entrainment of surrounding fluid until the fluid in the whole container is in turbulent motion. From the comparison of the experiments in clear water and polymer solutions we conclude: (i) Polymer additives modify the large scale shape of the TNTI. (ii) Both, in water and in the polymer solution the mean depth of the turbulent layer, H(t), follows the theoretical prediction for Newtonian fluids H(t)∞√Kt, where K∞S^2f is the “grid action.” (iii) We find a larger grid action for dilute polymer solutions than for water. As a consequence, the turbulent kinetic energy of the flow increases and the rate of energy input becomes higher. (iv) The entrainment rate β=v_e/v_(rms) (where v_e=dH/dt is the interface propagation velocity and v_(rms) is the root mean square of the vertical velocity) is lower for polymers (β_p≈0.7) than for water (β_w≈0.8). The measured values for β are in good agreement with similarity arguments, from which we estimate that in our experiment about 28% of the input energy is dissipated by polymers