1,116,607 research outputs found

    Imbalances between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in maternal serum during preterm labor

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    Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during pregnancy and parturition. Aberrant ECM degradation by MMPs or an imbalance between MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm labor, however few studies have investigated MMPs or TIMPs in maternal serum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine serum concentrations of MMP-3, MMP-9 and all four TIMPs as well as MMP:TIMP ratios during term and preterm labor. Methods: A case control study with 166 singleton pregnancies, divided into four groups: (1) women with preterm birth, delivering before 34 weeks (PTB); (2) gestational age (GA) matched controls, not in preterm labor; (3) women at term in labor and (4) at term not in labor. MMP and TIMP concentrations were measured using Luminex technology. Results: MMP-9 and TIMP-4 concentrations were higher in women with PTB vs. GA matched controls (resp. p = 0.01 and p<0.001). An increase in MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratio was observed in women with PTB compared to GA matched controls (resp. p = 0.02 and p<0.001) as well as compared to women at term in labor (resp. p = 0.006 and p<0.001). Multiple regression results with groups recoded as three key covariates showed significantly higher MMP-9 concentrations, higher MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratios and lower TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations for preterm labor. Significantly higher MMP-9 and TIMP-4 concentrations and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratios were observed for labor. Conclusions: Serum MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 balances are tilting in favor of gelatinolysis during preterm labor. TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations were lower in preterm gestation, irrespective of labor, while TIMP-4 concentrations were raised in labor. These observations suggest that aberrant serum expression of MMP:TIMP ratios and TIMPs reflect pregnancy and labor status, providing a far less invasive method to determine enzymes essential in ECM remodeling during pregnancy and parturition

    Whole blood NAD and NADP concentrations are not depressed in subjects with clinical pellagra

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    Population surveys for niacin deficiency are normally based on clinical signs or on biochemical measurements of urinary niacin metabolites. Status may also be determined by measurement of whole blood NAD and NADP concentrations. To compare these methods, whole blood samples and spot urine samples were collected from healthy subjects (n = 2) consuming a western diet, from patients (n = 34) diagnosed with pellagra and attending a pellagra clinic in Kuito (central Angola, where niacin deficiency is endemic), and from female community control subjects (n = 107) who had no clinical signs of pellagra. Whole blood NAD and NADP concentrations were measured by microtiter plate-based enzymatic assays and the niacin urinary metabolites 1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-PYR) and 1-methylnicotinamide (1-MN) by HPLC. In healthy volunteers, inter- and intra-day variations for NAD and NADP concentrations were much lower than for the urinary metabolites, suggesting a more stable measure of status. However, whole blood concentrations of NAD and NADP or the NAD:NADP ratio were not significantly depressed in clinical pellagra. In contrast, the concentrations of 2-PYR and 1-MN, expressed relative to either creatinine or osmolality, were lower in pellagra patients and markedly higher following treatment. The use of the combined cut-offs (2-PYR <3.0 micromol/mmol creatinine and 1-MN <1.3 micromol/mmol creatinine) gave a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 72%. In conclusion, whole blood NAD and NADP concentrations gave an erroneously low estimate of niacin deficiency. In contrast, spot urine sample 2-PYR and 1-MN concentrations, relative to creatinine, were a sensitive and specific measure of deficiency

    Dose-finding study of a 90-day contraceptive vaginal ring releasing estradiol and segesterone acetate.

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    ObjectiveTo evaluate serum estradiol (E2) concentrations during use of 90-day contraceptive vaginal rings releasing E2 75, 100, or 200&nbsp;mcg/day and segesterone acetate (SA) 200&nbsp;mcg/day to identify a dose that avoids hypoestrogenism.Study designWe conducted a multicenter dose-finding study in healthy, reproductive-aged women with regular cycles with sequential enrollment to increasing E2 dose groups. We evaluated serum E2 concentrations twice weekly for the primary outcome of median E2 concentrations throughout initial 30-day use (target ≥40&nbsp;pg/mL). In an optional 2-cycle extension substudy, we randomized participants to 2- or 4-day ring-free intervals per 30-day cycle to evaluate bleeding and spotting based on daily diary information.ResultsSixty-five participants enrolled in E2 75 (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;22), 100 (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;21), and 200 (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;22)&nbsp;mcg/day groups; 35 participated in the substudy. Median serum E2 concentrations in 75 and 100&nbsp;mcg/day groups were &lt;40&nbsp;pg/mL. In the 200&nbsp;mcg/day group, median E2 concentrations peaked on days 4-5 of CVR use at 194&nbsp;pg/mL (range 114-312&nbsp;pg/mL) and remained &gt;40&nbsp;pg/mL throughout 30&nbsp;days; E2 concentrations were 37&nbsp;pg/mL (range 28-62&nbsp;pg/mL) on days 88-90 (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;11). Among the E2 200&nbsp;mcg/day substudy participants, all had withdrawal bleeding following ring removal. The 2-day ring-free interval group reported zero median unscheduled bleeding and two (range 0-16) and three (range 0-19) unscheduled spotting days in extension cycles 1 and 2, respectively. The 4-day ring-free interval group reported zero median unscheduled bleeding or spotting days.ConclusionsEstradiol concentrations with rings releasing E2 200&nbsp;mcg/day and SA 200&nbsp;mcg/day avoid hypoestrogenism over 30-day use.ImplicationsA 90-day contraceptive vaginal ring releasing estradiol 200&nbsp;mcg/day and segesterone acetate 200&nbsp;mcg/day achieves estradiol concentrations that should avoid hypoestrogenism and effectively suppresses ovulation

    Combined treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor sitagliptin and elemental diets reduced indomethacin-induced intestinal injury in rats via the increase of mucosal glucagon-like peptide-2 concentration.

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    The gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the intestinotropic hormone GLP-2 are released from enteroendocrine L cells in response to ingested nutrients. Treatment with an exogenous GLP-2 analogue increases intestinal villous mass and prevents intestinal injury. Since GLP-2 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), DPP4 inhibition may be an effective treatment for intestinal ulcers. We measured mRNA expression and DPP enzymatic activity in intestinal segments. Mucosal DPP activity and GLP concentrations were measured after administration of the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin (STG). Small intestinal ulcers were induced by indomethacin (IM) injection. STG was given before IM treatment, or orally administered after IM treatment with or without an elemental diet (ED). DPP4 mRNA expression and enzymatic activity were high in the jejunum and ileum. STG dose-dependently suppressed ileal mucosal enzyme activity. Treatment with STG prior to IM reduced small intestinal ulcer scores. Combined treatment with STG and ED accelerated intestinal ulcer healing, accompanied by increased mucosal GLP-2 concentrations. The reduction of ulcers by ED and STG was reversed by co-administration of the GLP-2 receptor antagonist. DPP4 inhibition combined with luminal nutrients, which up-regulate mucosal concentrations of GLP-2, may be an effective therapy for the treatment of small intestinal ulcers