220,359 research outputs found

    Ozone Contamination in Aircraft Cabins. Appendix B: Overview papers. In-flight measurements

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    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program ozone measurements were obtained to establish to characteristics of the ambient ozone concentration during routine operations and to determine the attenuation of ambient concentrations of cabin air systems from simultaneous ambient and in cabin measurements. The characteristics of ambient ozone include: (1) maximum concentration; (2) duration of ozone encounters; (3) frequency of ozone during a flight; (4) variability of ozone during a flight; (5) in relation to routes, altitude, and meteorological conditions

    Distribution of VOCs between air and snow at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station, Switzerland, during CLACE 5 (winter 2006)

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    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed in air and snow samples at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station in Switzerland as part of CLACE 5 (CLoud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment) during February/March 2006. The fluxes of individual compounds in ambient air were calculated from gas phase concentrations and wind speed. The highest concentrations and flux values were observed for the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene (14.3 μg.m−2 s−1), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (5.27 μg.m−2 s−1), toluene (4.40 μg.m−2 −1), and the aliphatic hydrocarbons i-butane (7.87 μg.m−2 s−1), i-pentane (3.61 μg.m−2 s−1) and n-butane (3.23 μg.m−2 s−1). The measured concentrations and fluxes were used to calculate the efficiency of removal of VOCs by snow, which is defined as difference between the initial and final concentration/flux values of compounds before and after wet deposition. The removal efficiency was calculated at −24°C (−13.7°C) and ranged from 37% (35%) for o-xylene to 93% (63%) for i-pentane. The distribution coefficients of VOCs between the air and snow phases were derived from published poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) data, and compared with distribution coefficients obtained from the simultaneous measurements of VOC concentrations in air and snow at Jungfraujoch. The coefficients calculated from pp-LFER exceeded those values measured in the present study, which indicates more efficient snow scavenging of the VOCs investigated than suggested by theoretical predictions

    Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

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    BACKGROUND: Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM(10–2.5)) and fine (PM(2.5)) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O(3)), and sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. RESULTS: Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV(1)) associated with increasing concentrations of PM(2.5), NO(2 )and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO(2 )was associated with a decrease in FEV(1). No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function of the relatively young and mild asthmatics included in this study seems to worsen when ambient levels of NO(2 )increase

    Development and field evaluation of an online monitor for near-continuous measurement of iron, manganese, and chromium in coarse airborne particulate matter (PM)

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    A novel air sampling monitor was developed for near-continuous (i.e., 2-h time resolution) measurement of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and chromium (Cr) concentrations in ambient coarse particulate matter (PM) (i.e., PM10–2.5). The developed monitor consists of two modules: (1) the coarse PM collection module, utilizing two virtual impactors (VIs) connected to a modified BioSampler to collect ambient coarse PM into aqueous slurry samples; (2) the metal concentration measurement module, which quantifies the light absorption of colored complexes formed through the reactions between the soluble and solubilized target metals and pertinent analytical reagents in the collected slurries using a micro volume flow cell (MVFC) coupled with UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The developed monitor was deployed in the field for continuous ambient PM collection and measurements from January to April 2016 to evaluate its performance and reliability. Overall, the developed monitor could achieve accurate and reliable measurements of the trace metals Fe, Mn, and Cr over long sampling periods, based on the agreement between the metal concentrations measured via this online monitor and off-line parallel measurements obtained using filter samplers. Based on our results, it can be concluded that the developed monitor is a promising technology for near-continuous measurements of metal concentrations in ambient coarse PM. Moreover, this monitor can be readily configured to measure the speciation (i.e., water-soluble portion as well as specific oxidation states) of these metal species. These unique abilities are essential tools in investigations of sources and atmospheric processes influencing the concentrations of these redox-active metals in coarse PM. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Aerosol Research © 2016 American Association for Aerosol Research

    Factors Affecting the Association between Ambient Concentrations and Personal Exposures to Particles and Gases

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    Results from air pollution exposure assessment studies suggest that ambient fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μg (PM(2.5))], but not ambient gases, are strong proxies of corresponding personal exposures. For particles, the strength of the personal–ambient association can differ by particle component and level of home ventilation. For gases, however, such as ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), the impact of home ventilation on personal–ambient associations is untested. We measured 24-hr personal exposures and corresponding ambient concentrations to PM(2.5), sulfate (SO(4)(2−)), elemental carbon, O(3), NO(2), and SO(2) for 10 nonsmoking older adults in Steubenville, Ohio. We found strong associations between ambient particle concentrations and corresponding personal exposures. In contrast, although significant, most associations between ambient gases and their corresponding exposures had low slopes and R(2) values; the personal–ambient NO(2) association in the fall season was moderate. For both particles and gases, personal–ambient associations were highest for individuals spending most of their time in high- compared with low-ventilated environments. Cross-pollutant models indicated that ambient particle concentrations were much better surrogates for exposure to particles than to gases. With the exception of ambient NO(2) in the fall, which showed moderate associations with personal exposures, ambient gases were poor proxies for both gas and particle exposures. In combination, our results suggest that a) ventilation may be an important modifier of the magnitude of effect in time-series health studies, and b) results from time-series health studies based on 24-hr ambient concentrations are more readily interpretable for particles than for gases

    Use of spatiotemporal characteristics of ambient PM2.5 in rural South India to infer local versus regional contributions

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    This study uses spatiotemporal patterns in ambient concentrations to infer the contribution of regional versus local sources. We collected 12 months of monitoring data for outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in rural southern India. Rural India includes more than one-tenth of the global population and annually accounts for around half a million air pollution deaths, yet little is known about the relative contribution of local sources to outdoor air pollution. We measured 1-min averaged outdoor PM2.5 concentrations during June 2015-May 2016 in three villages, which varied in population size, socioeconomic status, and type and usage of domestic fuel. The daily geometric-mean PM2.5 concentration was approximately 30mugm(-3) (geometric standard deviation: approximately 1.5). Concentrations exceeded the Indian National Ambient Air Quality standards (60mugm(-3)) during 2-5% of observation days. Average concentrations were approximately 25mugm(-3) higher during winter than during monsoon and approximately 8mugm(-3) higher during morning hours than the diurnal average. A moving average subtraction method based on 1-min average PM2.5 concentrations indicated that local contributions (e.g., nearby biomass combustion, brick kilns) were greater in the most populated village, and that overall the majority of ambient PM2.5 in our study was regional, implying that local air pollution control strategies alone may have limited influence on local ambient concentrations. We compared the relatively new moving average subtraction method against a more established approach. Both methods broadly agree on the relative contribution of local sources across the three sites. The moving average subtraction method has broad applicability across locations