15,244 research outputs found

    First records of non-native species Callitriche deflexa (Plantaginaceae), which was previously misidentified as C. terrestris in Japan

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    The cosmopolitan genus Callitriche (Plantaginaceae) is a clade of small herbaceous plants that encompasses terrestrial and aquatic species. In Japan, six Callitriche species have been identified: four native and two naturalised species. Callitriche terrestris, a naturalised terrestrial species, was first reported in 1984 in Kanagawa Prefecture and it is thriving today.We report the presence of a new naturalised terrestrial species, Callitriche deflexa, which has been previously misidentified as C. terrestris because of its similar morphology. Callitriche deflexa can be distinguished from C. terrestris through genetic differences and distinct morphological traits, such as longer pedicels. Re-examination of herbarium specimens in the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History confirmed that most of the specimens labelled as C. terrestris, including voucher specimens from the original report, were indeed C. terrestris, but a few were C. deflexa. We also noted that the plants referred to as “C. terrestris” in our previous developmental studies should be corrected to C. deflexa

    Molecular phylogeny of the kidney-parasitic Sphaerospora renicola from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Sphaerospora sp. from goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

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    The genetic relatedness of two kidney-parasitic Sphaerospora species was studied. Although S. renicola, the causative agent of swimbladder inflammation of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio), and Sphaerospora sp. originating from goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) were indistinguishable on the basis of spore morphology, they were found to be genetically different as their 18S rDNA sequences shared only 71.9% identical nucleotides. In the phylogenetic trees, Sphaerospora sp. from goldfish grouped with Myxidium truttae (AJ582061) within the clade of the coelozoic freshwater species. Sphaerospora renicola clustered with S. molnari (AF378345) within the group of myxosporeans histozoic in gills. The topology of the six Sphaerospora species on the phylogenetic trees implied that myxospore morphology does not correlate with the genetic relationships, and the genus seems to be polyphyletic

    Entomological indicators of Plasmodium species transmission in Goma Tsé-Tsé and Madibou districts, in the Republic of Congo

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    Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Republic of Congo, with Plasmodium falciparum being the deadliest species of Plasmodium in humans. Vector transmission of malaria is poorly studied in the country and no previous report compared rural and urban data. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles fauna and the entomological indices of malaria transmission in the rural and urban areas in the south of Brazzaville, and beyond. Methods: Indoor household mosquitoes capture using electric aspirator was performed in rural and urban areas during raining and dry seasons in 2021. The identification of Anopheles species was done using binocular magnifier and nested-PCR. TaqMan and nested-PCR were used to detect the Plasmodium species in the head/thorax and abdomens of Anopheles. Some entomological indices including the sporozoite infection rate, the entomological inoculation rate and the man biting rate were estimated. Results: A total of 699 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (90.7%), Anopheles funestus s.l. (6.9%), and Anopheles moucheti (2.4%). Three species of An. gambiae s.l. were identified including Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (78.9%), Anopheles coluzzii (15.4%) and Anopheles arabiensis (5.7%). The overall sporozoite infection rate was 22.3% with a predominance of Plasmodium falciparum, followed by Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. Anopheles aggressiveness rate was higher in households from rural area (1.1 bites/night) compared to that from urban area (0.8 ib/p/n). The overall entomological inoculation rate was 0.13 ib/p/n. This index was 0.17 ib/p/n and 0.092 ib/p/n in rural and in urban area, respectively, and was similar during the dry (0.18 ib/p/n) and rainy (0.14 ib/p/n) seasons. Conclusion: These findings highlight that malaria transmission remains high in rural and urban area in the south of Republic of Congo despite the ongoing control efforts, thereby indicating the need for more robust interventions

    Cryptic bacterial pathogens of diatoms peak during senescence of a winter diatom bloom.

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    This is the final version. Available from Wiley via the DOI in this record.Data availability: Sequence data of bacterial strains isolated during this study are deposited in NCBI GenBank with accession nos.: OR776937– OR776933.Diatoms are globally abundant microalgae that form extensive blooms in aquatic ecosystems. Certain bacteria behave antagonistically towards diatoms, killing or inhibiting their growth. Despite their crucial implications to diatom bloom and population health, knowledge of diatom antagonists in the environment is fundamentally lacking. We report systematic characterisation of the diversity and seasonal dynamics of bacterial antagonists of diatoms via plaque assay sampling in the Western English Channel, where diatoms frequently bloom. Unexpectedly, peaks in detection did not occur during characteristic spring diatom blooms, but coincided with a winter bloom of Coscinodiscus, suggesting that these bacteria likely influence distinct diatom host populations. We isolated multiple bacterial antagonists, spanning 4 classes and 10 bacterial orders. Notably, a diatom attaching Roseobacter Ponticoccus alexandrii was isolated multiple times, indicative of a persistent environmental presence. Moreover, many isolates had no prior reports of antagonistic activity towards diatoms. We verified diatom growth inhibitory effects of eight isolates. In all cases tested, these effects were activated by pre-exposure to diatom organic matter. Discovery of widespread 'cryptic' antagonistic activity indicates that bacterial pathogenicity towards diatoms is more prevalent than previously recognised. Finally, examination of the global biogeography of WEC antagonists revealed co-occurrence patterns with diatom host populations in marine waters globally.Natural Environment Research CouncilNatural Environment Research CouncilNatural Environment Research Counci

    New deep-sea species of Aborjinia (Nematoda, Leptosomatidae) from the North-Western Pacific: an integrative taxonomy and phylogeny

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    Marimermithid nematodes parasitising invertebrates are mainly found in the deep-sea environments. Several adult and juvenile specimens marimermithids of the genus Aborjinia have been found in bottom sediments and inside Polychaeta during recent cruises to the Kuril-Kamchatka trench and the Kuril Basin (the Sea of Okhotsk). New species are described based on integrative study. Aborjinia profunda sp. nov. differs from A. eulagiscae by the location of the ventral gland cell bodies (posterior to the nerve ring vs posterior to the cardia), by the smaller body size (23–28 mm vs 103–132 mm) and shorter tail (193–263 µm vs 500–850 µm). BI and ML phylogenetic analyses based on 18S and 28S rDNA suggest that genus Aborjinia belongs to the family Leptosomatidae. Based on molecular and morphological characters the new genus Paraborjinia gen. nov. is proposed for A. corallicola. Within the family Leptosomatidae the new genus differs from all genera except Aborjinia by its endoparasitic lifestyle and hologonic ovaries. Paraborjinia gen. nov. differs from Aborjinia by the position of cephalic sensitive organs (outer labial and cephalic papillae in two separate circles vs outer labial and cephalic papillae in one circle) and by the parasitic adult (vs free-living in Aborjinia)

    The role of the oral microbiome in the immunobullous diseases pemphigus vulgaris and mucous membrane pemphigoid and oral lichen planus

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    Saliva is formed from contributions of salivary glands and the serum exudates principally from gingival margins or damaged mucosa combined with components derived from the environment, including a community of microorganisms - the microbiome. I postulate that changes in microbial diversity and population structure play key roles in the modulation of host- microbial interactions which influence both the hypersensitive autoimmune responses and inflammation seen in these inflammatory mucocutaneous disorders. For my research, a total of 186 participants were recruited: 48 mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), 48 pemphigus vulgaris (PV), 50 oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, and 40 healthy controls. Unstimulated whole saliva, subgingival plaque, serum, and plasma samples were collected from 186 participants. In addition, metadata were collected on the following covariates: age, gender, ethnicity, type of the diet, disease history and therapeutic intervention in the preceding six months. Oral disease severity scores (ODSS) were assessed, and periodontal status was examined using a periodontal six pocket chart. To characterise microbiome profiles, saliva and subgingival plaque were processed for sequencing genomic DNA using the NGS Shotgun metagenomics sequencing technique. Inflammatory cytokines and proteases were investigated in saliva and serum using Human Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay (R&D Systems). Selected cytokines were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique (R&D Systems) to determine host inflammatory responses in saliva and serum samples. Additionally, saliva and plasma samples were analysed for metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Significant increases in periodontal score (PISA) in all three groups of disease were identified compared to healthy control group with significant positive correlation between oral disease severity (ODSS) and PISA in OLP and PV groups. All three groups of diseases had significantly higher levels of inflammatory Th2/Th17 cytokines (IL-6, IL-13 and IL-17 in saliva samples), as well as higher levels of MMP-3 matrixins in saliva. In addition, there were positive correlations between ODSS and salivary IL-6, IL-13 and MMP-3 in saliva of OLP, salivary and serum levels of IL-6 and MMP-3 in MMP group, and significant association of salivary IL-6, IL-1β and MMP-3 in PV group. Metabolomic data showed that saliva is a better biofluid for correlation of the metabolomic profile with oral disease severity than plasma. Salivary ethanol was corelated with disease severity in the OLP group, whereas in PV was a strong correlation of ODSS with choline. Finally, a unique microbial community was found in each group of diseases. In the MMP group, ODSS was significantly correlated with L. hofstadii, C. sputigena, N. meningitidis, N. cinerea and P. sacchar0lytica. In PV, a positive correlation was found with F. nucleatum, G. morbillorum, and E. corrodens, G. elegans, H. sapiens and T. vincentii. In OLP, the disease tends to worsen when there was reduced abundance of X. cellulosilytica, Actinomyces ICM 47, S. parasanguinis, S. salivarius, L. mirabilis and O. sinus. Lower microbial diversity was correlated with ODSS in saliva and plaque of the OLP group. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence of the complex interplay between the oral microbiome, immunological factors, and metabolites in the context of immunobullous diseases and OLP. The findings highlight the integral role of oral bacteria in disease progression, the significance of immune dysregulation, and the potential impact of specific microbial species and metabolic pathways. These insights give the way for further research and clinical applications, offering the promise of personalized approaches for diagnosis, and management of OLP, MMP and PV. Future investigations should focus on discovering the mechanistic details underlying these associations and validating the identified biomarkers in larger patient cohorts, ultimately contributing to a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of these conditions

    Metabarcoding of zooplankton communities of Dianchi Lake based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene

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    Freshwater lakes as an essential component of the ecosystem, provide ecological resources in addition to economic source for humans. Under recent climate change scenario, preserving the biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems is crucial. This study aimed to characterize the diversity of zooplankton communities in Dianchi Lake, located in Kunming Municipality, Yunnan Province, China, using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene marker. A total of 18 water samples were collected including 16 from the outer sea area of Dianchi Lake: 4 from the east (E1-4), 4 from the west (W1-4), 4 from the south (S1-4), and 4 from the north (N1-4), and: 2 from the Caohai area (C1-2) as research sites. All environmental parameters including pH, ammonium (NH4+), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a content (CHLA) were found to be insignificant (p > 0.05), except for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and transparency (T), which were found to be significant (p < 0.05). Alpha diversity indices including ACE, Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson showed non-significant differences (p > 0.05), indicating no variation in the richness of zooplankton communities at different locations of Dianchi Lake. However, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that most of the samples from East, West, and South groups were close to each other, showing more similarities among them, while Caohai and North group samples were distant from each other, showing more differences with other groups. Rotifera, Arthropoda, and Chordata were the top three phyla, while Keratella, Macrothrix, and Brachionus were the dominant genera. Mantel test analysis showed that COD and transparency were important environmental factors that shaped the Rotifera community structure of Dianchi Lake. In conclusion, this study provides insights on conserving the diversity of zooplankton communities in Dianchi Lake, especially by controlling COD and maintaining water transparency, in order to preserve its ecological resources and economic significance

    Comparative analysis of organelle genomes provides conflicting evidence between morphological similarity and phylogenetic relationship in diatoms

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    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are abundant phytoplankton groups in marine environments, which contribute approximately 20% of global carbon fixation through photosynthesis. Moreover, diatoms exhibit the highest species diversity (approximately 18,000 diatom species) among marine photosynthetic eukaryotes, which were identified by morphological characteristics. Molecular phylogenetic analyses could shed new insights into the evolutionary relationships of diverse diatom species. Nevertheless, a comprehensive understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of diatom species still remains unclear because the available molecular data are insufficient compared with their high species diversity. Furthermore, several novel diatom species were reported from field samples with no molecular evidence. In particular, the phylogenies of diatom species constructed using organelle genomes revealed that several diatom genera are paraphyletic with high supporting values. We constructed high-resolution phylogenetic trees of diatom species using organelle genomes (plastids and mitochondria) and compared the morphologies in several paraphyletic diatom genera. Especially, the clades Nitzschia and Thalassiosira include several different diatom genera with high phylogenetic supports. Our study demonstrated that some morphological characteristics (e.g., genus characters) of several diatom genera could not represent current genus boundaries. Based on the results, we highlight the necessity for taxonomic reinvestigation. To reestablish this in diatoms, it will be essential to incorporate more genome data from a broader range of taxon samples, along with a comparison of morphological characteristics

    Design and Synthesis of a Novel Class of RNA Polymerase I Inhibitors

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    RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) is one of three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases and is responsible for transcription of the 47S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor. The 47S rRNA transcript is subsequently processed to release the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs which are assembled into ribosomes. Pol I transcription serves as the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis, accounting for up to 60% of active transcription in eukaryotic cells, directly influencing protein accumulation, cell growth, and cell division. Many types of cancers exhibit dysregulated rates of Pol I transcription, reflecting a need for increased ribosome synthesis to generate proteins to sustain heightened growth rates. Cancer cells may be selectively vulnerable to agents that inhibit Pol I transcription, providing an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. BMH-21 is the first specific and selective Pol I inhibitor and does so by intercalating into GC-rich rDNA and creating a transcription block, leading to the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the large catalytic subunit, RPA194. Notably, it accomplishes this independently of p53 and without eliciting a DNA damage response. BMH-21 is the first of only a small number of compounds to exhibit the RPA194 degradation phenotype, and a quantitative cell-based assay has been developed to measure the extent of RPA194 degradation caused by compound treatment. The primary goal of this work is to design and synthesize small molecule inhibitors of Pol I, with a focus on determining key pharmacophores and generating structure-activity relationship (SAR) data. SAR studies revealed key pharmacophores, but also showed that activity was limited within narrow chemical space. Further SAR efforts, summarized by this work, have produced additional scaffolds as well as addressed some off-target activity while maintaining desired RPA194 degradation potency. In collaboration with Evotec, the RPA194 degradation assay was translated from 96-well plate format to 384-well plate format to facilitate high-throughput screening (HTS) efforts, providing the opportunity to discover new Pol I inhibitors and to generate new SARs. Efforts were made to transform BMH-21 into a chemical probe to gain structural insight about its binding interactions and to identify its molecular target, providing rationale for the improved design of future compounds
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