11,319,228 research outputs found

    High abundance ratio of 13^{13}CO to C18^{18}O toward photon-dominated regions in the Orion-A giant molecular cloud

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    Aims. We derive physical properties such as the optical depths and the column densities of 13^{13}CO and C18^{18}O to investigate the relationship between the far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation and the abundance ratios between 13^{13}CO and C18^{18}O. Method. We have carried out wide-field (0.4 deg2^2) observations with an angular resolution of 25.8 arcsec (\sim 0.05 pc) in 13^{13}CO (JJ=1--0) and C18^{18}O (JJ=1--0) toward the Orion-A giant molecular cloud using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the on-the-fly mode. Results. Overall distributions and velocity structures of the 13^{13}CO and C18^{18}O emissions are similar to those of the 12^{12}CO (JJ=1--0) emission. The optical depths of the 13^{13}CO and C18O emission lines are estimated to be 0.05 << τ13CO\tau_{\rm ^{13}CO} << 1.54 and 0.01 << τC18O\tau_{\rm C^{18}O} << 0.18, respectively. The column densities of the 13^{13}CO and C18^{18}O emission lines are estimated to be 0.2 ×\times 1016^{16} << N13CON_{\rm ^{13}CO} << 3.7 ×\times 1017^{17} cm2^{-2} and 0.4 ×\times 1015^{15} << NC18ON_{\rm C^{18}O} << 3.5 ×\times 1016^{16} cm2^{-2}, respectively. The abundance ratios between 13^{13}CO and C18^{18}O, X13COX_{\rm ^{13}CO}/XC18OX_{\rm C^{18}O}, are found to be 5.7 - 33.0. The mean value of X13COX_{\rm ^{13}CO}/XC18OX_{\rm C^{18}O} in the nearly edge-on photon-dominated regions is found to be 16.47 ±\pm 0.10, which is a third larger than that the solar system value of 5.5. The mean value of X13COX_{\rm ^{13}CO}/XC18OX_{\rm C^{18}O} in the other regions is found to be 12.29 ±\pm 0.02. The difference of the abundance ratio is most likely due to the selective FUV photodissociation of C18^{18}O.Comment: 11 pages, 9 figures, Accepted to A&

    Experimental Line Parameters of the b^(1)Σ^(+)_g ← X^(3)Σ^(-)_g Band of Oxygen Isotopologues at 760 nm Using Frequency-Stabilized Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

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    Positions, intensities, self-broadened widths, and collisional narrowing coefficients of the oxygen isotopologues ^(16)O^(18)O, ^(16)O^(17)O, ^(17)O^(18)O, and ^(18)O^(18)O have been measured for the b^(1)Σg + ← X^(3)Σg − (0,0) band using frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Line positions of 156 P-branch transitions were referenced against the hyperfine components of the ^(39)K D_1 (4s ^(2)S_(1/2) → 4p ^(2)P_(1/2)) and D_2 (4s ^(2)S_(1/2) → 4p ^(2)P_(3/2)) transitions, yielding precisions of ~0.00005 cm^(−1) and absolute accuracies of 0.00030 cm^(−1) or better. New excited b^(1)Σg + state molecular constants are reported for all four isotopologues. The measured line intensities of the ^(16)O^(18)O isotopologue are within 2% of the values currently assumed in molecular databases. However, the line intensities of the ^(16)O^(17)O isotopologue show a systematic, J-dependent offset between our results and the databases. Self-broadening half-widths for the various isotopologues are internally consistent to within 2%. This is the first comprehensive study of the line intensities and shapes for the ^(17)O^(18)O or ^(18)O_2 isotopologues of the b^(1)Σg + ← X^(3)Σg − (0,0) band of O_2. The ^(16)O_2, ^(16)O^(18)O, and ^(16)O^(17)O line parameters for the oxygen A-band have been extensively revised in the HITRAN 2008 database using results from the present study

    Folding model analysis of proton scattering from mirror nuclei 18^{18}Ne and 18^{18}O

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    The elastic and inelastic scattering of protons from mirror nuclei 18^{18}Ne and 18^{18}O are studied in a folding model approach. For comparison, two different effective interactions are folded with Hartree-Fock densities to obtain the nuclear interaction potentials. Both of them provide equivalent descriptions to the data and the deformation parameters extracted from inelastic scattering are reasonable. The density dependence parameters obtained from nuclear matter calculations and used for present analysis also provide a good estimate for the nuclear mean free path. The present formalism unifies radioactivity, nuclear matter and nuclear scattering.Comment: 12 pages including 5 figure

    Adiabatic internuclear potentials obtained by energy variation with the internuclear-distance constraint

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    We propose a method to obtain adiabatic internuclear potentials via energy variation with the intercluster-distance constraint. The adiabatic 16^{16}O + 16,18^{16,18}O potentials obtained by the proposed method are applied to investigate the effects of valence neutrons in 16^{16}O + 18^{18}O sub-barrier fusions. Sub-barrier fusion cross sections of 16^{16}O + 18^{18}O are enhanced more compared to those of 16^{16}O + 16^{16}O because of distortion of valence neutrons in 18^{18}O.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure

    Oxygen isotope ratios in olivine from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

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    Oxygen isotope ratios of olivine in 23 tholeiites from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) core (15 from Mauna Kea, 8 from Mauna Loa) and three samples of outcropping subaerial or dredged submarine Mauna Kea lavas have been measured by laser fluorination. The δ^(18)O values are 4.6–5.4 ‰, confirming previous observations that some Hawaiian lavas are derived from sources with δ^(18)O values lower than typical upper mantle (δ^(18)Oolivine ≈ 5.2±0.2 ‰). The Mauna Kea-Mauna Loa transition marks a shift from δ^(18)O values lower than the mantle average in Mauna Kea olivines (∼4.8) to more typical mantle values in Mauna Loa olivines. Lavas containing olivines with δ^(18)O values similar to the typical upper mantle are associated with more “primitive” or less depleted radiogenic isotope characteristics; i.e., with higher ^3He/^4He (>13 Ra), higher ^(87)Sr/^(86)Sr (>0.7036) and lower є_(Nd) (<6.5), and with ^(206)Pb/^(204)Pb ratios less than -18.3. These relationships indicate that the δ^(18)O values of the relatively enriched source components of the Hawaiian plume sampled by Mauna Loa lavas are comparable to (or greater than) the mantle average. This conclusion is supported by δ^(18)O values of olivine from other high ^3He/^4He islands, which are also comparable to the upper mantle average. The low δ^(18)O values in Hawaiian lavas are derived from a source having more MORB-like, or depleted, He, Nd, and Sr isotope ratios, but more radiogenic Pb than is seen in the Mauna Loa lavas Assimilation of ^(18)O-depleted lower oceanic crust from the underlying Pacific crust by hot, MgO-rich parental magmas or melting of older, recycled oceanic crust entrained in the Hawaiian plume are both possible sources of this ^(18)O-depleted, MORB-like component in Hawaiian magmas

    Pore fluid constraints on deep ocean temperature and salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum

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    Pore water records of δ^(18)O and [Cl] from ODP Site 1063A on the Bermuda Rise constrain the change in seawater δ^(18)O and salinity from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the Holocene to be 0.75±0.05‰ and 2.5±0.1% respectively. Coupled with a measured benthic foraminiferal δ^(18)O change, this result means that bottom waters were 4.6±0.8°C cooler than the Holocene at the LGM and therefore at or near the seawater freezing point. Coupled δ^(18)O and chlorinity results give an extrapolated mean ocean LGM to Holocene change in δ^(18)O of 0.95±0.09‰. These data also constrain the past southern source deep‐water salinity to be 35.76±0.04 psu, which is within error of the mean deep ocean value for this time

    Stable water isotopes in HadCM3: isotopic signature of El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the tropical amount effect

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    Stable water isotopes have been added to the full hydrological cycle of the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM. Simulations of delta O-18 in precipitation and at the ocean surface compare well with observations for the present-day climate. The model has been used to investigate the isotopic anomalies associated with ENSO; it is found that the anomalous delta O-18 in precipitation is correlated with the anomalous precipitation amount in accordance with the "amount effect.'' The El Nino delta O-18 anomaly at the ocean surface is largest in coastal regions because of the mixing of ocean water and the more depleted runoff from the land surface. Coral delta O-18 anomalies were estimated, using an established empirical relationship, and generally reflect ocean surface delta O-18 anomalies in coastal regions and sea surface temperatures away from the coast. The spatial relationship between tropical precipitation and delta O-18 was investigated for the El Nino anomaly simulated by HadCM3. Weighting the El Nino precipitation anomaly by the precipitation amount at each grid box gave a large increase in the spatial correlation between tropical precipitation and delta O-18. This improvement was most apparent over land points and between 10 and 20 degrees of latitude

    O(^3P) +CO_2 Collisions at Hyperthermal Energies: Dynamics of Nonreactive Scattering, Oxygen Isotope Exchange, and Oxygen-Atom Abstraction

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    The dynamics of O(^3P) + CO_2 collisions at hyperthermal energies were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Crossed-molecular-beams experiments at Ecoll = 98.8 kcal mol^(–1) were performed with isotopically labeled ^(12)C^(18)O_2 to distinguish products of nonreactive scattering from those of reactive scattering. The following product channels were observed: elastic and inelastic scattering (^(16)O(^3P) + ^(12)C^(18)O^2), isotope exchange (^(18)O + ^(16)O^(12)C^(18)O), and oxygen-atom abstraction (^(18)O^(16)O + ^(12)C^(18)O). Stationary points on the two lowest triplet potential energy surfaces of the O(^3P) + CO_2 system were characterized at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory and by means of W4 theory, which represents an approximation to the relativistic basis set limit, full-configuration-interaction (FCI) energy. The calculations predict a planar CO_3(C_(2v),^3A″) intermediate that lies 16.3 kcal mol^(–1) (W4 FCI excluding zero point energy) above reactants and is approached by a C_(2v) transition state with energy 24.08 kcal mol^(–1). Quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations with collision energies in the range 23–150 kcal mol^(–1) were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d) and BMK/6-311G(d) levels. Both reactive channels observed in the experiment were predicted by these calculations. In the isotope exchange reaction, the experimental center-of-mass (c.m.) angular distribution, T(θ_(c.m.)), of the ^(16)O^(12)C^(18)O products peaked along the initial CO_2 direction (backward relative to the direction of the reagent O atoms), with a smaller isotropic component. The product translational energy distribution, P(E_T), had a relatively low average of E_T = 35 kcal mol^(–1), indicating that the ^(16)O^(12)C^(18)O products were formed with substantial internal energy. The QCT calculations give c.m. P(E_T) and T(θ_(c.m.)) distributions and a relative product yield that agree qualitatively with the experimental results, and the trajectories indicate that exchange occurs through a short-lived CO_3^* intermediate. A low yield for the abstraction reaction was seen in both the experiment and the theory. Experimentally, a fast and weak ^(16)O^(18)O product signal from an abstraction reaction was observed, which could only be detected in the forward direction. A small number of QCT trajectories leading to abstraction were observed to occur primarily via a transient CO_3 intermediate, albeit only at high collision energies (149 kcal mol^(–1)). The oxygen isotope exchange mechanism for CO_2 in collisions with ground state O atoms is a newly discovered pathway through which oxygen isotopes may be cycled in the upper atmosphere, where O(^3P) atoms with hyperthermal translational energies can be generated by photodissociation of O_3 and O_2
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