339,298 research outputs found

    HTLV-II in blood donors at the Blood Center Net of Cear√° ‚Äď HEMOCE

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    SummaryObjectiveTo identify HTLV-II prevalence in blood donors at the Blood Center Net of Cear√° (Hemorrede do Cear√° - HEMOCE)and epidemiological aspects of positive cases.MethodsCases considered positive were surveyed from data bases through the immunoenzymatic method ELISA and confirmed by Western Blot from 2001 to 2008. In this period, 679,610 blood samples from voluntary donors were tested.ResultsFrom all donors, 164 samples were actually positive in both tests; of these, 33 (20.1%) were typed as HTLV-II, showing a prevalence of 0.006%. In positive cases, a mean age 28.2 years, and a predominantly male gender (54.5%) were observed, the race was mixed in 78.8%, most donors had Fortaleza as hometown (72.7%), with 51.5% being married/consensual union, and 33.3% reported to have completed high school education.ConclusionAlthough HTLV-II infection is low, its presence is universal, being similar in males and females mostly in urban centers. The need of preventive measures as a way of avoiding infection spread is stressed

    A Minimally-Invasive Procedure for Sexing Young Zebra Finches

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    Zebra finches have been widely used to study neurobiology underlying vocal development. Because only male zebra finches learn song, efficient developmental use of these animals requires early determination of sex at ages that precede maturation of secondary sex characteristics. We have developed a sex determination method that combines a forensics method of genomic DNA isolation (from very small blood samples) with PCR amplification from Z and W sex chromosomes (males are ZZ, females ZW). This combination results in a minimally-invasive yet highly reliable and convenient genotyping method. Originally published Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Vol. 164, No. 1, Aug 200

    Muscle Contraction Duration and Fibre Recruitment Influence Blood Flow and VO2 Independent of Contractile Work during Steady-State Exercise in Humans

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    We tested the hypothesis that, among conditions of matched contractile work, shorter contraction durations and greater muscle fibre recruitment result in augmented skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption (O2) during steady-state exercise in humans. To do so, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) during 4 minutes of rhythmic handgrip exercise in 24 healthy young adults and calculated forearm O2 via blood samples obtained from a catheter placed in retrograde fashion into a deep vein draining the forearm muscle. In Protocol 1 (n = 11), subjects performed rhythmic isometric handgrip exercise at mild and moderate intensities under conditions in which tension time index (TTI; isometric analog of work) was held constant but contraction duration was manipulated. In this protocol, shorter contraction durations led to greater FBF (184 ¬Ī 25 vs. 164 ¬Ī 25 ml¬∑min-1) and O2 (23 ¬Ī 3 vs. 17 ¬Ī 2 ml¬∑min-1; both PPper se during steady-state exercise in humans

    Molecular markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistant malaria prior to intermittent preventive treatment among pregnancies in Makurdi, Nigeria

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    Molecular markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance were monitored in pregnant women¬†of mean age 28 ¬Ī 11years in Makurdi, Nigeria. A total of 82 Plasmodium falciparum malaria positive blood¬†samples were obtained prior to commencement of intermittent preventive treatment with SP (IPTp-SP) during¬†antenatal visits. Of the 82 samples, 71 were successfully genotyped at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) loci51, 59, 108 and 164; and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) loci 436, 437, and 540. The genotyping was¬†accomplished by means of polymerase chain reaction, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The aim¬†was to determine the percentage frequencies of P. falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)¬†associated with resistance to SP in vivo. The results show that both the dhfr and dhps genes each produced 5¬†different haplotypes with varying percentage frequencies. All genotyped gene loci had SNPs except dhfr 164¬†and dhps 540. Haplotype combination of dhfr/dhps alleles yielded 15 different genotypes of P. falciparum¬†parasites. The combined frequencies of triple/quadruple mutant haplotypes associated with in vivo SP¬†resistance was 35.21%, but was significantly lower than single/double mutant haplotypes not associated with¬†SP resistance (Ōá2 = 6.21, df = 1, p = 0.01). These results suggest a possible rise in in vivo SP resistance during¬†IPTP-SP. There is a need for continuous monitoring of SP efficacy, for effective intermittent preventive¬†treatment with the drug in the area.Keywords: Malaria, antimalarial drug resistance, single nucleotide polymorphisms, haplotype

    Topical use of tranexamic acid in coronary artery bypass operations: A double-blind, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study

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    AbstractObjectives: We sought to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid into the pericardial cavity in reducing postoperative blood loss in coronary artery surgery. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind investigation with parallel groups was performed. Forty consecutive patients undergoing primary coronary surgery were randomly assigned to group 1 (tranexamic acid group) or group 2 (placebo group). Tranexamic acid (1 g in 100 mL of saline solution) or placebo was poured into the pericardial cavity and over the mediastinal tissues before sternal closure. The drainage of mediastinal blood was measured hourly. Results: Chest tube drainage in the first 24 hours was 485 ¬Ī 166 mL in the tranexamic acid group and 641 ¬Ī 184 mL in the placebo group (P = .01). Total postoperative blood loss was 573 ¬Ī 164 mL and 739 ¬Ī 228 mL, respectively (P = .01). The use of banked donor blood products was not significantly different between the two groups. Tranexamic acid could not be detected in any of the blood samples blindly collected from 24 patients to verify whether any systemic absorption of the drug occurred. There were no deaths in either group. None of the patients required reoperation for bleeding. Conclusions: Topical application of tranexamic acid into the pericardial cavity after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing primary coronary bypass operations significantly reduces postoperative bleeding. Further studies must be carried out to clarify whether a more pronounced effect on both bleeding and blood products requirement might be seen in procedures with a higher risk of bleeding. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000;119:575-80

    The second gamma-H2AX assay inter-comparison exercise carried out in the framework of the European biodosimetry network (RENEB)

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    Purpose: Within the EU RENEB project, seven laboratories have taken part in training and harmonisation activities to strengthen triage gamma H2AX-based radiation exposure assessment. This has culminated in a second triage biodosimetry exercise. Materials and methods: Whole blood and separated lymphocyte samples were homogenously irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at 0.5, 2.5 (blind samples), 0 and 2 Gy (reference samples). Following post-exposure incubations of 4 and 24 h, 16 samples were shipped on ice packs to each partner. The samples were stained and scored for gamma-H2AX foci, using manual and/or automated fluorescence microscope scoring strategies. Dose estimates were obtained and used to assign triage categories to the samples. Results: Average dose estimates across all the laboratories correlated well with true doses. The most accurate assignment of triage category was achieved by manual scoring of the 4-h blood and lymphocyte samples. Only three samples out of a total of 46 were miscategorized in a way that could have adversely effected the clinical management of a radiation casualty. Conclusions: This inter-comparison exercise has demonstrated that following a recent acute radiation exposure, the gamma-H2AX assay could be a useful triage tool that can be successfully applied across a network of laboratories

    Malaria in children of Tshimbulu (Western Kasai, Democratic Republic of the Congo): epidemiological data and accuracy of diagnostic assays applied in a limited resource setting

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    BACKGROUND: The literature data on malaria in Western Kasai, DRC, are limited and inadequate. A recent molecular survey there has detected Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae as mixed infections with Plasmodium falciparum. In Tshimbulu, Western Kasai, during a humanitarian initiative designed to provide children with free preventive screening and to reduce the local high malaria death rate, accurate species identification was performed, in order to collect unambiguous epidemiological data and to evaluate the reliability of locally applied diagnostics. METHODS: Finger pricks provided fresh blood for microscopic analysis (MA), for rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and for molecular diagnostics (MD). MA and RDT were first performed by the local team and then a re-interpretation of the results (on the same slides and on RDT's taken pictures) was conducted in Italy, where MD were performed. RESULTS: The analysis was conducted on 306 children; RDT found 80.9 % as P. falciparum-positive (37.4 % as two-band positive, P. falciparum single infection). MA identified a further four children as positive to P. falciparum and six co-infections with P. ovale. The second RDT evaluation confirmed a similar infection rate (78.2 %) but interpreted as two-band positive a significantly higher share of tests (56.8 %). MA confirmed 80.0 % of the children as malaria positive and, in addition to P. falciparum, identified P. malariae (13.8 %), P. vivax (3.4 %) and P. ovale (2.4 %), and detected Babesia microti in 19 smears. MD confirmed all of the species found (Babesia microti included), classified as mono-infection with P. falciparum a rate of spots comparable to MA revision, and identified all P. ovale as Plasmodium ovale wallikeri. The RDT used locally proved 93.1 % sensitive and 92.1 % specific for P. falciparum. CONCLUSIONS: The malaria prevalence among the children and the presence of four Plasmodium species, highlighted in this study, identified a sanitary issue which proved to be more alarming than expected, as it was worsened by the unpredictable presence of P. vivax and Babesia microti (never before reported in DRC). Each diagnostic tool showed its point of weakness. Therefore, the most correct approach is by the combined use of different, locally available, diagnostic tools

    Factors influencing transfusion-associated HLA sensitization in patients bridged to heart transplantation using ventricular assist device.

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    BackgroundBridging heart failure patients with mechanical ventricular assist devices (VAD) enables access to transplantation. However, VAD is associated with increased risk for anti-HLA antibodies associated with rejection of subsequent allografts. Factors determining alloantibody formation in these patients remain undefined.MethodsWe performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of 164 patients undergoing heart transplantation from 2014 to 2017. Medical records including use of VAD, transfused blood products, anti-HLA antibody testing, crossmatch, and time to transplant were evaluated.ResultsPatients received an average of 13.8 red blood cell and 1.9 single-donor platelet units associated with VAD. There was a 28.7% increase in the incidence of anti-HLA antibodies after VAD. Development of anti-HLA antibodies did not correlate with volume or type of blood products, but with pre-VAD HLA sensitization status; relative risk of new alloantibodies in patients with pre-VAD antibodies was 3.5-fold higher than those without prior antibodies (P = .008). Development of new anti-HLA antibodies was associated with an increased time to transplant (169 vs 330 days, P = .013).ConclusionsOur findings indicate that the presence of anti-HLA antibodies pre-VAD was the most significant risk factor for developing additional antibodies post-VAD, suggesting that a subset of patients may be predisposed to alloantibody formation

    J Health Care Poor Underserved

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    BackgroundSedentary behavior has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among primarily White samples, while studies among Latinos have shown mixed results.PurposeTo explore relationships between sedentary behavior and CVD risk factors among a sample of Latino adults.MethodsA cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults. Surveys of sedentary behavior and physical activity were orally administered. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Medical record data for diabetes and dyslipidemia were obtained.ResultsSedentary behavior was associated with BMI (\uce\ub2 = .164, p < .001) and waist circumference (\uce\ub2 = .162, p < .001). Sedentary behavior was not associated with blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or physical activity.ConclusionsThe consequences of sedentary behavior may differ across groups. Evaluating the relationship between sedentary behavior and CVD risk is critical in identifying behaviors contributing to CVD.P60 MD006912/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/United StatesR01 MH085653/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United StatesT32 HL120823/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United StatesU48 DP005031/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States2017-08-21T00:00:00Z28529225PMC556385
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