3,787 research outputs found

    Late-time spectral line formation in Type IIb supernovae, with application to SN 1993J, SN 2008ax, and SN 2011dh

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    We investigate line formation processes in Type IIb supernovae (SNe) from 100 to 500 days post-explosion using spectral synthesis calculations. The modeling identifies the nuclear burning layers and physical mechanisms that produce the major emission lines, and the diagnostic potential of these. We compare the model calculations with data on the three best observed Type IIb SNe to-date - SN 1993J, SN 2008ax, and SN 2011dh. Oxygen nucleosynthesis depends sensitively on the main-sequence mass of the star and modeling of the [O I] 6300, 6364 lines constrains the progenitors of these three SNe to the M_ZAMS=12-16 M_sun range (ejected oxygen masses 0.3-0.9 M_sun), with SN 2011dh towards the lower end and SN 1993J towards the upper end of the range. The high ejecta masses from M_ZAMS >= 17 M_sun progenitors give rise to brighter nebular phase emission lines than observed. Nucleosynthesis analysis thus supports a scenario of low/moderate mass progenitors for Type IIb SNe, and by implication an origin in binary systems. We demonstrate how oxygen and magnesium recombination lines may be combined to diagnose the magnesium mass in the SN ejecta. For SN 2011dh, a magnesium mass of of 0.02-0.14 M_sun is derived, which gives a Mg/O production ratio consistent with the solar value. Nitrogen left in the He envelope from CNO-burning gives strong [N II] 6548, 6583 emission lines that dominate over H-alpha emission in our models. The hydrogen envelopes of Type IIb SNe are too small and dilute to produce any noticeable H-alpha emission or absorption after ~150 days, and nebular phase emission seen around 6550 A is in many cases likely caused by [N II] 6548, 6583. Finally, the influence of radiative transport on the emergent line profiles is investigated...(abridged)Comment: Published versio

    Solar electric propulsion for Mars transport vehicles

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    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is an alternative to chemical and nuclear powered propulsion systems for both piloted and unpiloted Mars transport vehicles. Photovoltaic solar cell and array technologies were evaluated as components of SEP power systems. Of the systems considered, the SEP power system composed of multijunction solar cells in an ENTECH domed fresnel concentrator array had the least array mass and area. Trip times to Mars optimized for minimum propellant mass were calculated. Additionally, a preliminary vehicle concept was designed

    Kinetic energy driven superconductivity in doped cuprates

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    Within the t-J model, the mechanism of superconductivity in doped cuprates is studied based on the partial charge-spin separation fermion-spin theory. It is shown that dressed holons interact occurring directly through the kinetic energy by exchanging dressed spinon excitations, leading to a net attractive force between dressed holons, then the electron Cooper pairs originating from the dressed holon pairing state are due to the charge-spin recombination, and their condensation reveals the superconducting ground-state. The electron superconducting transition temperature is determined by the dressed holon pair transition temperature, and is proportional to the concentration of doped holes in the underdoped regime. With the common form of the electron Cooper pair, we also show that there is a coexistence of the electron Cooper pair and antiferromagnetic short-range correlation, and hence the antiferromagnetic short-range fluctuation can persist into the superconducting state. Our results are qualitatively consistent with experiments.Comment: 6 pages, Revtex, two figures are included, corrected typo

    Synchronous versus asynchronous transport of a paramagnetic particle in a modulated ratchet potential

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    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study describing the dynamical regimes displayed by a paramagnetic colloidal particle externally driven above a stripe-patterned magnetic garnet film. A circularly polarized rotating magnetic field modulates the stray field of the garnet film and generates a translating periodic potential which induces particle motion. Increasing the driving frequency, we observe a transition from a phase-locked motion with constant speed to a sliding dynamics characterized by a lower speed due to the loss of synchronization with the traveling potential. We explain the experimental findings with an analytically tractable theoretical model and interpret the particle dynamics in the presence of thermal noise. The model is in good quantitative agreement with the experiments.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, published in Europhysics Letters (EPL

    Static Pricing Problems under Mixed Multinomial Logit Demand

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    Price differentiation is a common strategy for many transport operators. In this paper, we study a static multiproduct price optimization problem with demand given by a continuous mixed multinomial logit model. To solve this new problem, we design an efficient iterative optimization algorithm that asymptotically converges to the optimal solution. To this end, a linear optimization (LO) problem is formulated, based on the trust-region approach, to find a "good" feasible solution and approximate the problem from below. Another LO problem is designed using piecewise linear relaxations to approximate the optimization problem from above. Then, we develop a new branching method to tighten the optimality gap. Numerical experiments show the effectiveness of our method on a published, non-trivial, parking choice model
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