419 research outputs found

    Irish Building Services News

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    The role of hybrid systems in the decarbonization of residential heritage buildings in Mediterranean climate. A case study in Seville, Spain

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    Residential heritage buildings in the Mediterranean region face unexpected challenges in the field of energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality to ensure the sustainable conservation of historic town centres. This paper evaluates whether the conservation of their values can coexist with the current energy efficiency requirements and be included in urban decarbonization plans to prevent neglect and degradation. For this, a comprehensive decarbonization plan was drawn up based on the results of a previous energy audit on the case study selected, an 18th-century listed residential building in Seville, Spain. Envelope improvement was combined with mechanical ventilation and an integrated heat pump combining RESs and electricity from the public grid to cover all thermal needs in order to reach NZEB performance in the building. Despite the complexity of integrating demanding energy efficiency standards into heritage buildings, which requires case-by-case analysis and dynamic simulation, findings show a notable degree of approximation to NZEB performance. The main obstacles stem from the large amount of energy consumed by auxiliary systems and the relatively low presence of RESs in the national electricity mix

    Energetic, Economic and Environmental (3E) Assessment and Design of Solar-Powered HVAC Systems in Pakistan

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    Rapid urbanization, global warming and enhanced quality of life have significantly increased the demand of indoor thermal comfort and air conditioning systems are not a luxury anymore, but a necessity. In order to fulfil this need, it is imperative to develop affordable and environmentally friendly cooling solutions for buildings. In this work, the 3E performance (energetic, economic and environmental) of electrically driven water-cooled vapour compression systems and thermally (solar) driven vapour absorption cooling systems are evaluated and the parameters affecting the performance of solar-driven vapour absorption systems are investigated. The energy simulation software TRNSYS is used to simulate the performance of both systems in order to fulfil the cooling needs of an industrial manufacturing building for the typical climate conditions for Lahore, Pakistan. Primary energy saving, initial investment, operational cost, and carbon footprint indices are used to analyse the performance of both systems. In addition, a parametric code is written in Python and linked with TRNSYS to perform a parametric study to investigate the effects of various parameters such as solar field size, storage tank volume, optimum annual and monthly collector angles, and flow rate in the solar field on the solar-driven vapour absorption chiller performance. The results reveal that around 5% more energy can be absorbed per collector surface area by changing the solar tilt angle on a monthly basis compared to one fixed angle. The analysis shows that electrically driven vapour compression-based cooling systems have much higher running cost and are potentially hazardous for the environment but have lower capital costs. On the other hand, solar thermal systems have lower running costs and emissions but require further reductions in the capital costs or government subsidies to make them viable

    How climate change affects the building energy consumptions due to cooling, heating, and electricity demands of italian residential sector

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    Climate change affects the buildings’ performance, significantly influencing energy consumption, as well as the indoor thermal comfort. As a consequence, the growing outdoor environmental temperatures entail a slight reduction in heating consumption and an increase in cooling consumption, with different overall effects depending on the latitudes. This document focuses attention on the Italian residential sector, considering the current and reduced meteorological data, in anticipation of future climate scenarios. According to a sample of 419 buildings, referring to the climatic conditions of Milan, Florence, Rome, and Naples, the heating and cooling needs are calculated by a simplified dynamic model, in current and future conditions. The effects of the simplest climate adaptation measure, represented by the introduction of new air conditioners, have been also evaluated. The simulations results show an important reduction in complex energy consumption (Milan −6%, Florence −22%, Rome −25%, Naples −30%), due to the greater incidence of heating demand in the Italian context. However, the increase in air conditioning electrical consumption over the hot season (Milan +11%, Florence +20%, Rome +19%, Naples +16%) can play a critical role for the electrical system; for that reason, the introduction of photovoltaic arrays as a compensatory measure have been analysed

    Final Report: Review of State Energy Research, September 15, 1996 - September 30, 1998

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    BS News

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    Experimental calibration and validation of a simulation model for fault detection of HVAC systems and application to a case study

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    Automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) could provide a cornerstone for predictive maintenance of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems based on the development of simulation models able to accurately compare the faulty operation with respect to nominal conditions. In this paper, several experiments have been carried out for assessing the performance of the HVAC unit (nominal cooling/heating capacity of 5.0/5.0 kW) controlling the thermo-hygrometric comfort inside a 4.0 × 4.0 × 3.6 m test room at the Department of Architecture and Industrial Design of the University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli (Italy); then, a detailed dynamic simulation model has been developed and validated by contrasting the predictions with the measured data. The model has also been used to analyze the dynamic variations of key parameters associated to faulty operation in comparison to normal performance, in order to identify simplified rules for detection of any non-optimal states of HVAC devices. Finally, the simulated performance of the HVAC unit has also been investigated while serving a typical Italian building office with and without the occurrence of typical faults with the main aim of assessing the impact of the faults on thermo-hygrometric comfort conditions as well as electric energy consumption

    H & V News

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    Improved Mobile Kitchen Unit

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    The goal of this Interactive Qualifying Project is to design a mobile kitchen that addresses problems found in current models, while maintaining an attractive and functional package. To do this, we investigated current mobile kitchens to identify their flaws, and how to correct them. We used this information to design a model kitchen unit that addresses these concerns, and selected equipment and appliances that will make the unit safe, sanitary and economically desirable. This design of the food truck will be the next step in the evolution of mobile kitchens
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