28,979 research outputs found

    Differential responses in some quinoa genotypes of a consortium of beneficial endophytic bacteria against bacterial leaf spot disease

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    Many effective plant-microbe interactions lead to biological changes that can stimulate plant growth and production. This study evaluated the effect of the interaction between quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and endophytic bacterial strains on differential responses under biotic stress. Four strains of endophytic bacteria were used to inoculate three quinoa genotypes. Endophytic bacteria, isolated from the endosphere of healthy genotypes of quinoa plants, were used to evaluate their biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae on quinoa plants, which causes leaf spot disease, depending on some different parameters. Quinoa genotype plants were treated with four treatments: pathogenic bacteria only (T1), internal bacteria only (T2), pathogenic bacteria + endogenous bacteria (T3), and untreated as the control (T4). The results indicated that there was a significant difference between chlorophyll content index of infected plants without bioagent (untreated) compared to plants bio-inoculated with endophytic bacteria. The highest mean disease incidence was on the plants without bacterial inoculum (90, 80, and 100%) for quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The results showed that there were significant differences in the weight of grains/plant, as the value ranged from 8.1 to 13.3‚ÄČg when treated with pathogens (T1) compared to the treatment with pathogens and endogenous bacteria (T3), which ranged from 11.7 to 18.6‚ÄČg/plant. Decreases in total aromatic amino acids appeared due to the pathogen infection, by 6.3, 22.8, and 24.1% (compared to the control) in G1, G2, and G3, respectively. On the other hand, genotype G3 showed the highest response in the levels of total aromatic and total neutral amino acids. The endophytic strains promoted quinoa seedling growth mainly by improving nutrient efficiency. This improvement could not be explained by their ability to induce the production of amino acids, showing that complex interactions might be associated with enhancement of quinoa seedling performance by endophytic bacteria. The endophytic bacterial strains were able to reduce the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease by 30, 40, and 50% in quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively, recording significant differences compared to the negative control. The results indicated that, G1 genotype was superior in different performance indicators (pathogen tolerance index, yield injury %, superiority measure and relative performance) for grain weight/plant under pathogen infection condition when treated with endophyte bacteria. Based on this study, these bacterial strains can be used as a biotechnology tool in quinoa seedling production and biocontrol to diminish the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease

    Epilepsy Mortality: Leading Causes of Death, Co-morbidities, Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention

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    a reuptake inhibitor selectively prevents seizure-induced sudden death in the DBA/1 mouse model of sudden unexpected ... Bilateral lesions of the fastigial nucleus prevent the recovery of blood pressure following hypotension induced by ..

    Folates: An Introduction

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    Folate is a naturally occurring essential nutrient which is vital for DNA replication and a necessary substrate in various enzymatic reactions which are involved in synthesis of amino acids and vitamin metabolism. The synthetic and oxidized form of folate is folic acid, it is mainly incorporated into fortified foods and dietary supplements for preventive measures against folate deficiency. Folate deficiency has been linked with several abnormalities in both mother (anemia, peripheral neuropathy) and fetus (congenital abnormalities). Folic acid supplementation taken around the time of conception has been known to alleviate the risk of neural tube defects in the off springs. Optimal intake and absorption of folates is required for the maintenance of the human body’s normal functioning and keeping the genomic integrity intact

    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: insulation sector summary

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    Uso de las histonas circulantes y sus modificaciones post-traduccionales como biomarcadores en sepsis y shock séptico

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    La sepsis es una afecci√≥n potencialmente mortal causada por una respuesta anormal del hu√©sped a una infecci√≥n, produciendo respuestas fisiol√≥gicas alteradas que da√Īan los propios tejidos del paciente y pueden provocar disfunci√≥n org√°nica e incluso la muerte. Asimismo, algunos pacientes s√©pticos progresan a shock s√©ptico, caracterizado por alteraciones circulatorias, celulares y metab√≥licas sustanciales que aumentan el riesgo de mortalidad. A pesar de que la sepsis se caracteriza por un mal funcionamiento del sistema inmunol√≥gico, lo que a su vez conduce a una respuesta inmune alterada e inmunosupresi√≥n, la alta complejidad de la fisiopatolog√≠a de la sepsis requiere una mayor investigaci√≥n para comprender las respuestas inmunes que ocurren durante la sepsis. Asimismo, las histonas extracelulares circulantes han ganado relevancia como mediadores citot√≥xicos en la sepsis, ya que act√ļan como patrones moleculares asociados a da√Īo, que inducen estr√©s oxidativo y activan el inflamasoma NLRP3. Estos mecanismos median la activaci√≥n de la piroptosis, un mecanismo de muerte celular programada que produce inflamaci√≥n mediante la expresi√≥n de IL-18, IL-1ő≤ and IL-1őĪ. Sin embargo, a pesar de la evidencia de activaci√≥n del inflamasoma en las c√©lulas inmunes durante la sepsis, se desconoce si las histonas extracelulares son capaces de activar los inflamasomas endoteliales y sus consecuencias. En este trabajo destacamos el papel previamente desconocido de las histonas extracelulares, mediando la activaci√≥n del inflamasoma NLRP3 y la piroptosis en las c√©lulas endoteliales, contribuyendo a la disfunci√≥n endotelial y la desregulaci√≥n de la respuesta inmune mediada por el endotelio. Asimismo, tambi√©n demostramos c√≥mo la acetilaci√≥n de histonas disminuye la activaci√≥n de la piroptosis. Adem√°s, demostramos que la piroptosis se produce en pacientes con shock s√©ptico y los niveles de histonas circulantes se correlacionan con la expresi√≥n de citoquinas proinflamatorias y citoquinas piropt√≥ticas, la liberaci√≥n de factores de adhesi√≥n endotelial y la gravedad de la enfermedad. Proponemos la piroptosis mediada por histonas como un nuevo objetivo para desarrollar intervenciones cl√≠nicas. De manera similar, hemos analizado las respuestas inmunorelacionadas que ocurren durante las primeras etapas de la sepsis con el objetivo de proporcionar nuevos datos comparando las cantidades de citoquinas, inmunomoduladores y otros mediadores endoteliales en pacientes cr√≠ticamente enfermos no s√©pticos, s√©pticos y de shock s√©ptico. Nuestro enfoque ayudar√° a caracterizar r√°pidamente las respuestas inmunes alteradas en pacientes s√©pticos y de shock s√©ptico ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Finalmente analizamos el papel de la metilaci√≥n del ADN en el control del sistema inmune s√©ptico. Nuestros resultados demostraron el papel central de la metilaci√≥n del ADN modulando la respuesta molecular en los pacientes de shock s√©ptico y contribuyendo a la inmunosupresi√≥n, a trav√©s de la alteraci√≥n de los patrones de metilaci√≥n de los promotores de IL-10 y TREM-2.Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by an abnormal host response to an infection that produce altered physiological responses which damages own tissues of the patient and can result in organ dysfunction and in some cases death. Likewise, a subset of septic patients progresses to septic shock, characterized by substantial circulatory, cellular and metabolic abnormalities, which substantially increase the risk of mortality. Sepsis is characterized by a malfunction of the immune system and it can lead to an altered immune response and immunosuppression. Moreover, the high complexity of the pathophysiology of sepsis requires of further investigation to characterize the immune responses in sepsis and septic shock. Likewise, circulating extracellular histones have gained relevance as cytotoxic mediators in sepsis pathophysiology, since they act as damage-associated molecular patterns, which induce oxidative stress and activate NLRP3 inflammasome. Subsequently, inflammasome mediates pyroptosis activation, a programmed cell death mechanism that produces inflammation through the release of IL-18, IL-1ő≤ and IL-1őĪ. However, despite inflammasome activation may occur in immune cells during sepsis, it is unknown if this process also takes place in endothelial cells and particularly whether extracellular histones are capable of activating endothelial inflammasomes and their consequences. In this work we highlight a previously unknown role for extracellular histones, that mediates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis in endothelial cells by contributing to endothelial dysfunction and the dysregulation of the immune response mediated by endothelium. Likewise, we demonstrated how histone acetylation decreases pyroptosis activation. Furthermore, we show how pyroptosis occurs in septic shock patients and how circulating histone levels correlate with the expression of pro-inflammatory and pyroptotic cytokines, the release of endothelial adhesion factors and septic shock severity. We propose histone-mediated pyroptosis as a new target to develop clinical interventions. Similarly, we have analyzed the immune-related responses occurring during the early stages of sepsis with the aim of providing new data by comparing the amounts of cytokines, immune modulators and other endothelial mediators in critically-ill non-septic patients, septic and septic shock patients. Our approach will help to rapidly characterize the altered immune responses in septic and septic shock patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit. Finally, we also analyzed the role of DNA methylation in the control of septic immune system. Our results demonstrated the central role of DNA methylation modulating the molecular response in septic shock patients and contributing to immunosuppression, through the alteration of DNA methylation patterns of IL-10 and TREM2 promoters

    Food for thought! Inulin-type fructans: does the food matrix matter?

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    Food matrices can be described as the final composition of a food product which results from complex interactions between compounds found within different ingredients and the processing parameters used in production. These factors, not only impact on the final structure of a product, but also have the potential to alter both the structural integrity and bioavailability of potentially beneficial compounds present, for example, dietary fibres. As a result, there is growing curiosity amongst the scientific community on whether the food matrix may impact on the prebiotic efficacy of inulin-type fructans. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore previous food-based inulin-type fructan supplementation studies to determine whether the food matrix directly impacts on their prebiotic efficacy. Our working hypothesis is that other potentially prebiotic ingredients and components present within the food may alter inulin-type fructans prebiotic effect

    Ionic Liquids on Oxide Surfaces

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    Ionic liquids supported on oxide surfaces are being investigated for numerous applications including catalysis, batteries, capacitors, transistors, lubricants, solar cells, corrosion inhibitors, nanoparticle synthesis and biomedical applications. The study of ionic liquids with oxide surfaces presents challenges both experimentally and computationally. The interaction between ionic liquids and oxide surfaces can be rather complex, with defects in the oxide surface playing a key role in the adsorption behaviour and resulting electronic properties. The choice of the cation/anion pair is also important and can influence molecular ordering and electronic properties at the interface. These controllable interfacial behaviours make ionic liquid/oxide systems desirable for a number of different technological applications as well as being utilised for nanoparticle synthesis. This topical review aims to bring together recent experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of ionic liquids with oxide surfaces, including TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, SnO2 and transition metal oxides. It focusses on the behaviour of ionic liquids at model single crystal surfaces, the interaction between ionic liquids and nanoparticulate oxides, and their performance in prototype devices

    Examining the Potential for Isotope Analyses of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulphur in Burned Bone from Experimental and Archaeological Contexts.

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    The aim of this project was to determine whether isotope analyses of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur can be conducted on collagen extracted from burned bone. This project was conducted in two phases: a controlled heating experiment and an archaeological application. The controlled heating experiment used cow (Bos taurus) bone to test the temperature thresholds for the conservation of őī13C, őī15N, and őī34S values. These samples were also used to test the efficacy of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colour analysis, for determining the burning intensities experienced by bone burned in unknown conditions. The experiment showed that őī13C values were relatively unchanged up to 400¬įC (<2‚Äį variation), while őī15N values were relatively stable up to 200¬įC (0.5‚Äį variation). Values of őī34S were also relatively stable up to 200¬įC (1.4‚Äį variation). Colour change and FTIR data were well correlated with the change in isotope ratios. Models estimating burning intensities were created from the FTIR data. For the archaeological application, samples were selected from two early Anglo-Saxon cemetery sites: Elsham and Cleatham. Samples were selected from both inhumed and cremated individuals. Among the inhumed individuals őī13C values suggested a C3 terrestrial diet and őī15N values suggested protein derived largely from terrestrial herbivores, as expected for the early Anglo-Saxon period. However, őī34S values suggested the consumption of freshwater resources and that this consumption was related to both the age and sex of the individual. The experimental data shows that there is potential for isotope analyses of cremated remains, as during the cremation process heat exposures are not uniform across the body. The samples selected for the archaeological application, however, were not successful. Bone samples heated in controlled conditions produced viable collagen for isotope analysis; however, there are several differences between experiments conducted in a muffle furnace and open-air pyre cremation that need to be investigated further. Additionally, the influence of taphonomy on collagen survival in burned bone needs to be quantified. Finally, methods of sample selection need to be improved to find bone samples from archaeologically cremated remains that are most likely to retain viable collagen. While there is significant research that must be conducted before this research can be widely applied there are a multitude of cultures that practised cremation throughout history and around the world that could be investigated through the analyses proposed in this project

    √Čvaluation de la durabilit√© des pieux en b√©ton arm√© de barres et de spirales de PRFV en milieu marin

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    Abstract : Conventional concrete reinforced (RC) with black steel in marine environment suffers damage due to corrosion. Most field examination studies found heavy corrosion before achieving 75-100 years of the service life desired by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Lately, glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) as internal reinforcement in concrete have proved outstanding structural and long-term durability performance in corrosive environments. The last three decades witnessed a significant revolution in the usage of GFRP in civil engineering projects to raise the service lives and reduce maintenance costs of RC structures. Over three-thousands bridges over Canada and U.S. included GFRP bars as reinforcement for constructing the most elements vulnerable to corrosion due to de-icing salts and annual thermal changes (i.e., deck slabs) as well as the usage in reinforcing the culvert bridges in the U.S. The field examination for the bridge‚Äôs barrier walls, deck slabs, and culvert built with GFRP bars after 10-20 years in service indicates good long-term durability. The usage of GFRP bars and spirals in the RC columns, piers, and piling system is widely accepted and recommended in most conclusions of previous studies. Most investigations in the past have focused mainly on the behavior of RC piles/columns under concentric, eccentric, and cyclic loading, disregarding the relationship between the structural and durability behavior. This thesis presents the results of the axial compression test for forty-eight RC square and circular piles exposed to the marine environment and two conditioning temperatures for 12-months. All specimens have laboratory-scale dimensions measuring 300 mm for square pile's width, 304 mm for circular pile's diameter, and 1000 mm general height. The durability conditioning regime is comprised of two environments; (i) simulation for the marine environment in sub-tropical regions (22¬įC), (ii) simulated marine environment at accelerated temperature (60¬įC). Phase (I) contains 18-concrete square piles and Phase (II) includes 18-concrete circular piles. The thirty-six concrete piles were: six specimens were without internal reinforcement, 6-specimens were reinforced with hybrid reinforcement (steel bars and GFRP spirals), and the remaining twentyfour specimens were fabricated with pristine GFRP bars and spirals. For each phase, twelve pile specimens were subjected to the conditioning regime for 12-months, six specimens for each conditioning temperature. Whereas phase (III) includes 6- square and 6-circular RC piles, which were made of GFRP reinforcement directly immersed in the simulated marine environment at 22 and 60¬įC for 12-months before integrating into concrete, three GFRP-cages for each aging temperature. Several structural variables were investigated through the three phases such as longitudinal reinforcement (ratio and diameter) and transverse reinforcement (pitch and configurations). In addition, a microstructural analysis program (SEM, DSC, and FTIR) was carried out on GFRP material extracted from the aged piles and those directly exposed to the conditioning regime. Concrete cores taken from the aged piles were examined by optical microscopy (OM) to assess the bond between concrete and bars/spirals. This thesis also introduces a characterization for GFRP bars exposed directly to the marine environment based on tensile, bond, and horizontal shear tests. The experimental axial compression capacities of GFRP-RC piles were compared with the values predicted using the available design equations in the current design codes. The results obtained from microstructural analyses showed that GFRP reinforcement used in this study possesses good long-term durability in concrete saturated with the marine environment or in solutions simulated seawater environments at 60¬įC after 12-months. OM images for the concrete/bar contact circumference revealed that bars/spirals firmly bond to concrete. A 0.85 is the lowest retention in the tensile and bond strengths of GFRP bars, while the retention in horizontal shear strength reaches 0.95 after direct exposure to the marine environment at 60¬įC for 12-months. Based on the compressive tests, the axial compression behavior of GFRP-RC square and circular pile did not adversely affect by immersion in the simulated marine environment at 22 or 60¬įC for 12-months or using pre/conditioned GFRP material. The axial compression capacity of ten GFRP-RC pile specimens submerged in the simulated marine environment at 60¬įC was enhanced by 116-125% compared to their unconditioned counterparts as a result of an increase in the concrete compressive strength. Specimens fabricated with GFRP material aged at 60¬įC exhibited similar ductile behavior and axial compression capacities of their counterparts constructed with pristine GFRP material. Despite the tensile strength reduction after exposure to aggressive environments, GFRP reinforcing materials effectively perform their structural function as internal reinforcement of RC piles. All investigated structural variables effectively affect the compressive behavior of GFRP-RC piles in the marine environment. The reduction factors for GFRP-RC structures specified in CSA (2019a) and AASHTO (2018a), and CSA (2017) yielded lower axial compression capacities than those obtained experimentally. A more accurate design equation to calculate the axial load capacity of the GFRP RC piles should consider the contribution of longitudinal GFRP bars even when exposed to severe marine environments.Le b√©ton conventionnel arm√© (RC) avec de l'acier noir dans un environnement marin subit des dommages dus √† la corrosion. La plupart des √©tudes d'examen sur le terrain ont r√©v√©l√© une forte corrosion avant d'atteindre les 75-100 ans de la dur√©e de vie souhait√©e par la Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). R√©cemment, les polym√®res renforc√©s de fibres de verre (PRFV) utilis√©s comme armature interne dans le b√©ton ont prouv√© qu'ils pr√©sentaient des performances structurelles et de durabilit√© √† long terme exceptionnelles dans des environnements corrosifs. Les trois derni√®res d√©cennies ont vu une r√©volution significative dans l'utilisation des PRFV dans les projets de g√©nie civil pour augmenter la dur√©e de vie et r√©duire les co√Ľts de maintenance des structures en b√©ton arm√©. Plus de trois mille ponts au Canada et aux √Čtats-Unis ont inclus des barres GFRP comme renforcement pour la construction des √©l√©ments les plus vuln√©rables √† la corrosion due aux sels de d√©gla√ßage et aux changements thermiques annuels (c'est-√†-dire les dalles de pont), ainsi que pour le renforcement des ponceaux aux √Čtats-Unis. L'examen sur le terrain des murs de protection, des dalles de pont et des ponceaux construits avec des barres GFRP apr√®s 10 √† 20 ans de service indique une bonne durabilit√© √† long terme. L'utilisation de barres et de spirales en GFRP dans les colonnes, les piliers et les syst√®mes de pilotis en b√©ton arm√© est largement accept√©e et recommand√©e dans la plupart des conclusions des √©tudes pr√©c√©dentes. La plupart des recherches dans le pass√© se sont concentr√©es principalement sur le comportement des pieux/colonnes en b√©ton arm√© sous des charges concentriques, excentriques et cycliques, sans tenir compte de la relation entre le comportement structurel et la durabilit√©. Cette th√®se pr√©sente les r√©sultats de l'essai de compression axiale pour quarante-huit pieux RC carr√©s et circulaires expos√©s √† l'environnement marin et √† deux temp√©ratures de conditionnement pendant 12 mois. Tous les sp√©cimens ont des dimensions √† l'√©chelle du laboratoire mesurant 300 mm pour la largeur du pieu carr√©, 304 mm pour le diam√®tre du pieu circulaire, et 1000 mm de hauteur g√©n√©rale. Le r√©gime de conditionnement de durabilit√© est compos√© de deux environnements ; (i) simulation pour l'environnement marin dans les r√©gions subtropicales (22¬įC), (ii) environnement marin simul√© √† temp√©rature acc√©l√©r√©e (60¬įC). La phase (I) comprend 18 pieux carr√©s en b√©ton et la phase (II) comprend 18 pieux circulaires en b√©ton. Les trente-six pieux en b√©ton √©taient les suivants : six sp√©cimens n'avaient pas d'armature interne, six sp√©cimens √©taient renforc√©s par une armature hybride (barres d'acier et spirales GFRP), et les vingt-quatre sp√©cimens restants √©taient fabriqu√©s avec des barres et des spirales GFRP vierges. Pour chaque phase, douze sp√©cimens de pieux ont √©t√© soumis au r√©gime de conditionnement pendant 12 mois, six sp√©cimens pour chaque temp√©rature de conditionnement. Tandis que la phase (III) comprend 6 pieux RC carr√©s et 6 circulaires, qui ont √©t√© r√©alis√©s avec des armatures GFRP directement immerg√©es dans l'environnement marin simul√© √† 22 et 60¬įC pendant 12 mois avant d'√™tre int√©gr√©es dans le b√©ton, trois cages GFRP pour chaque temp√©rature de vieillissement. Plusieurs variables structurelles ont √©t√© √©tudi√©es au cours des trois phases, telles que les armatures longitudinales (ratio et diam√®tre) et les armatures transversales (pas et configurations). De plus, un programme d'analyse microstructurelle (SEM, DSC, et FTIR) a √©t√© r√©alis√© sur le mat√©riau GFRP extrait des pieux vieillis et ceux directement expos√©s au r√©gime de conditionnement. Des carottes de b√©ton pr√©lev√©es sur les pieux vieillis ont √©t√© examin√©es par microscopie optique (OM) pour √©valuer la liaison entre le b√©ton et les barres/spirales. Cette th√®se pr√©sente √©galement une caract√©risation des barres GFRP expos√©es directement √† l'environnement marin, bas√©e sur des essais de traction, de liaison et de cisaillement horizontal. Les capacit√©s exp√©rimentales de compression axiale des pieux en GFRP-RC ont √©t√© compar√©es aux valeurs pr√©dites en utilisant les √©quations de conception disponibles dans les codes de conception actuels. Les r√©sultats obtenus √† partir des analyses microstructurales ont montr√© que le renforcement GFRP utilis√© dans cette √©tude poss√®de une bonne durabilit√© √† long terme dans du b√©ton satur√© de l'environnement marin ou dans des solutions simulant des environnements d'eau de mer √† 60¬įC apr√®s 12 mois. Les images OM de la circonf√©rence de contact b√©ton/barre ont r√©v√©l√© que les barres/spirales adh√®rent fermement au b√©ton. Une r√©tention de 0,85 est la plus faible dans les r√©sistances √† la traction et √† l'adh√©rence des barres GFRP, tandis que la r√©tention de la r√©sistance au cisaillement horizontal atteint 0,95 apr√®s une exposition directe √† l'environnement marin √† 60¬įC pendant 12 mois. D'apr√®s les essais de compression, le comportement en compression axiale des pieux carr√©s et circulaires en GFRP-RC n'a pas √©t√© affect√© par l'immersion dans l'environnement marin simul√© √† 22 ou 60¬įC pendant 12 mois ou par l'utilisation de mat√©riau GFRP pr√©-conditionn√©. La capacit√© de compression axiale de dix sp√©cimens de pieux RC en GFRP immerg√©s dans un environnement marin simul√© √† 60¬įC a √©t√© augment√©e de 116-125% par rapport √† leurs homologues non conditionn√©s en raison d'une augmentation de la r√©sistance √† la compression du b√©ton. Les sp√©cimens fabriqu√©s avec un mat√©riau GFRP vieilli √† 60¬įC ont pr√©sent√© un comportement ductile et des capacit√©s de compression axiale similaires √† ceux de leurs homologues construits avec un mat√©riau GFRP vierge. Malgr√© la r√©duction de la r√©sistance √† la traction apr√®s exposition √† des environnements agressifs, les mat√©riaux de renforcement GFRP remplissent efficacement leur fonction structurelle en tant que renforcement interne des pieux RC. Toutes les variables structurelles √©tudi√©es affectent efficacement le comportement en compression des pieux GFRP-RC dans l'environnement marin. Les facteurs de r√©duction pour les structures en GFRP-RC sp√©cifi√©s dans CSA (2019a) et AASHTO (2018a), et CSA (2017) ont donn√© des capacit√©s de compression axiale inf√©rieures √† celles obtenues exp√©rimentalement. Une √©quation de conception plus pr√©cise pour calculer la capacit√© de charge axiale des pieux RC en GFRP devrait tenir compte de la contribution des barres longitudinales en GFRP, m√™me lorsqu'elles sont expos√©es √† des environnements marins s√©v√®res
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