322 research outputs found

    Harmonization of trade in services by APEC members

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    This study maps out the degree of services trade liberalization by the APEC members toward achieving a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) and makes some comparative analyses. The study finds that the commitment level differs greatly between sensitive and less sensitive sectors, and that the commitment level under the ASEAN Framework Agreement (AFAS) package 8 is the highest among the four FTAs studied. It also finds that there are cross-country and sector-wide similarities in the pattern of service sector commitment under and across each of the FTAs; this implies that the shared domestic sensitivities can be overcome by an APEC-wide economic cooperation scheme for enhancing competitiveness (through, e.g., the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement or TPP)

    Liberalization of Trade in Services under ASEAN+n: A Mapping Exercise

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    This study maps out the degree of liberalization of trade in services under four ASEAN+n frameworks. After constructing a database showing the existence of limitations on market access and/or national treatment by each service sector, the study finds that the commitment level differs greatly between sensitive and less sensitive sectors, and that the commitment level under the ASEAN Framework Agreement (AFAS) is the highest among the four FTAs studied. It also finds that there are cross-country and sector-wide similarities in the pattern of service sector commitment under and across each of the FTAs; this implies that the shared domestic sensitivities can be overcome by a shared economic cooperation scheme for enhancing competitiveness (through FTA provisions). The study further highlights that, overall, Mode 4 (movement of people) gains least commitment, whereas Mode 2 (consumption abroad) gains most commitment under all the four FTAs studied. Turning to policy implications, there are two possibilities on the sequence of further streamlining the four FTAs: (1)Start within the same “clusters” among similarly committed countries under a particular FTA; then harmonize the level of commitments across all the signatory countries to the FTA; or (2) Start with harmonizing rather dissimilar countries from different “clusters” of commitments under a particular FTA, which provides small-scale “social experimenting”; then scale up this line of effort at an acceptably later stage to the level of the whole FTA, then eventually attempt to harmonize across all the FTAs centering on ASEAN. Further study along these lines is needed.

    The Effects of Racialization on European American Stress in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

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    This dissertation explores disparities in stress among European Americans (EA) and between EA and African Americans (AA) in racialized communities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Comparisons among EA and between EA and AA are conducted to understand the biological consequences of racialization. Racialization is the process of assigning people to hierarchical categories for purposes of political, social, and economic discrimination. This dissertation investigates how racialization might have affected childhood stress using biocultural theory and facets of critical archaeology theory. Indicators of stress from skeletonized individuals in the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection, Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection, and the Robert J. Terry Anatomical Skeletal Collection are used in this study. These indicators represent non-specific childhood stress and include measures of the anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TR) diameters of the ventral neural canals (VNC) of the five lumbar vertebrae as well as linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) frequency data from the maxillary central incisors and mandibular canines. Historical sources contextualize this investigation. The results of the finite mixture analysis (FMA) suggest that at least three phenotypically distinct groups of EA existed between 1828 and 1984. This study was not able to determine with certainty whether these EA groups represented particular racialized groups. Multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) tests found a significant race effect with regard to late childhood /adolescent stress during the Early (1828-1881) period between EA and AA. AA had significantly smaller TR VNC diameters, suggesting they also experienced significantly more late childhood/adolescent stress. MANOVA tests also found significant sex effects during the Intermediate (1914-1945) and Late (1946-1984) periods. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed that early childhood stress, as demonstrated by AP VNC diameter and LEH decreased over time. ANOVA tests also showed that late childhood/adolescent stress, as demonstrated by TR VNC diameter, increased over time. The findings in this study suggest that explorations into the possible effects of racialization on population heterogeneity and stress heterogeneity are warranted and should also consider the intersection of various other identities such as sex, gender, class, language, religion, and nationality

    Technological adjustments in textiles, clothes and leather industries: an alternative pathway for competitiveness

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    Labour-intensive industries, located in medium/high-cost areas are presently facing increasing low-cost competition and outsourcing with tremendous consequences at the regional employment level. The ability to react and technologically adjust to the challenges of these harder market conditions is what determines whether a region is a producer of high value-added goods or just a merely subcontractor. In fact, alternative employment opportunities may arise from complementary areas linked to technological innovations and although one can expect further job decline in manufacturing productive units, it is also expectable that more qualified jobs may be created in complementary areas, such as design, marketing, retail and management. The first objective of the present research is to characterise the process of adoption of new technologies in textile, clothes and leather (TCL) sectors from a group of Southern European regions, characterised by their economic vulnerability and dependence on these sectors. The results revealed that we are in the presence of a process: a) developed internally; b) supplier dominated and c) motivated by the international market. The second objective is to observe the impacts of technical change on local employment structures, namely regarding employment levels and skills. The results indicate that firms investing in new plant and equipment and firms investing in the development of new products are more likely to be increasing employment than the others. Also, firms hiring in these sectors, look for adequate qualifications, in particular regarding the ability to work with internet and marketing technology tools. We conclude that alternative pathways for competitiveness in these industries can be found through higher productivity levels driven from a much reduced workforce, if greater proportion of their turnover could be invested in technology and employment qualification

    Determinants of export performance in Ethiopia: a VAR model analysis

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    Despite encouraging improvements in recent decades, Ethiopia's export performance has typically been portrayed as poor compared with other sub -Saharan African countries. The major objective of this paper is to investigate factors that determine the export performance of the country by using an econometric model for the period 1970/71- 2010/11. This study tried to review the export performance; trends and share of different export items and examine the long run and short run determinants of export performance of Ethiopia. The long run and short run estimates are investigated using Johansson cointegration and Vector Error Correction approaches. The data is collected from NBE (2011), EEA statistical data base CD-ROM (2010), and WB and WDI (2011). The findings of the study revealed that in the long run export performance has found to be positively influenced by real effective exchange rate, openness, RGDP of home country, infrastructural development and private credit as a ratio of GDP (financial development). The RGDP of trading partner has found to be statistically insignificant. Hence, the long run elasticities of export performance with respect to real effective exchange rate, openness, RGDP of home country, infrastructural development and private credit as a ratio ofGDP (financial development) are 0.7, 0.54, 1.7, 0.3 and 0.44 respectively. In the short run only last year openness has directly involved in enhancing export performance of current year. Maintaining high and sustainable economic growth, improvements in infrastructural facilities and credit access, and maintaining conducive and stable exchange rate policies as well as working to reduce trade restriction mechanism should due emphasis so as to improve Ethiopia's export performance. Key words: Ethiopia, Export Performance, Financial development, infrastructural development, Johansson co-integration, Openness, Real effective exchange rate, RGDP of home country, RGDP of trading partner, Vector Error Correction.Jimma Universit

    Labour Cost and Export Behaviour of Firms in Indian Textile and Clothing Industry

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    The implementation of the Agreement on Textile and Clothing (ATC) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) renders both threats and opportunities to India’s Textile and Clothing (T&C) industry in the wake of liberal international trade in the sector. Firms acquire greater international competitiveness through various cost cutting and efficiency enhancing strategies. The question we try to ponder on is, what route does Indian firms take to join the international export market in T&C. Empirical analysis, using Tobit estimation techniques, supported the view that increasing the share of low cost labour was an important route through which export performance of the Indian firms in T&C was enhanced. Further, the use of this means to perform better in the international market aggravated in the period after the implementation of the ATC. On the other hand, capital and technology based factors did not have any perceptive effect on the export performance of Indian firms in the international market. This endorses the view that the Indian T&C firms by and large utilized the low road to competitiveness, rather than the other. Also the importance of the import intensity in export performance suggests that Indian T&C is increasingly getting integrated within the global value chain.Export performance; Textile and clothing industry; Labour cost; Tobit Model; Agreement on Textile and Clothing

    The effect of grade retention on school outcomes: an application of doubly robust estimation method

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    "In this study, I estimate the average causal treatment effect of grade retention on several educational outcome variables, such as completion of upper secondary school, graduation grades in math and German, as well as average final grade using a data set from Germany. The analysis relies on Conditional Independence Assumption. I use doubly robust method, regression adjustment and inverse propensity score weighting. The results of the empirical study show that grade retention does not improve the students' educational achievement." (author's abstract

    Government Patent Policy: an Analysis of the Effects of Three Alternative Patent Policies on Technology of Government Inventions

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    The effects of present and proposed Government patent policies on the process of technology transfer and the commercialization of inventions resulting from Government sponsored research are addressed. The function of the patent system in Government research and the value of patents resulting from government sponsored research are examined. Three alternative patent policies, title in the contractor, title in the Government, and the waiver policy, are examined in terms of their effect on the commercialization of inventions, industrial competitions, disclosure of inventions, participation of research contractors and administrative costs. Efforts to reform the present Government patent policy are also described

    Interaction entre politique monétaire et politique budgétaire:Cas de la GrÚce

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    We attempt to draw together monetary and fiscal policy making theory and the cointegrated VAR econometric methodology. Kirsanova at al(2005) have provided theory on the design of optimal monetary and fiscal policies, but estimation of monetary policy arrangements has suffered from many salient criticisms, not least non-stationarity. A cointegrated vector-autoregressive model is used in this paper to estimate monetary and _fiscal policy rules and gain insight on policy interactions in Greece. Predictions found in the literature find partial support, and survey data is also used to help shed light on possible forms of expectations formation. The evidence does not suggest strong policy interactions, and supports the idea that monetary policy is more stabilising in its inuence on economic activity than is fiscal policy