276 research outputs found

    Globalization, Reform and the Informal Sector

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    informal sector, reformatory policies, production organization

    Effects of the private-label invasion in food industries

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    Using supermarket scanner data, we test a variety of hypotheses from trade journals about the invasion of private-label food products. According to conventional industry wisdom, name-brand firms defended their brands against new private-label products by lowering their prices, engaging in additional promotional activities, and increasingly differentiating their products. Our empirical evidence is inconsistent with these beliefs.private label; entry; price; promotional activity; differentiation; supermarket

    Big Chicken: Pollution and Industrial Poultry Production in America

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    Describes how the consolidation of the poultry industry raises concerns about treatment and disposal of waste, especially in the Chesapeake Bay area. Policy recommendations include caps on animal density and shared responsibility for waste management

    Regional Input on the Social Dimension of Ezoneplus: Belgium, The Netherlands, France, Austria, and Germany

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    This Regional Input is a supplement to Ezoneplus Working Paper No. 13 on the Social Dimension of the Eastward Enlargement of the Eurozone. Within Ezoneplus the Social Dimension is a hybrid in the sense that it addresses both the reshaping of certain policies and the socio-political repercussions an Eastward enlargement of the euro-zone may have. Correspondingly, key questions to be answered can be grouped under two headings: Firstly, what kind of external shocks does EU enlargement, and more specifically, the enlargement of EMU produce on national and EU policies? The three policy areas here to be inspected are social security systems, labour market regulation, and EU structural and agricultural policy. Secondly, how do national societies and political systems respond to these new constraints? This implies both potential social conflicts enhanced by the enlargement process, as well as their implications for national policy-making. In order to combine both topics, we suggest an analysis using insights of modern political economy. In brief, this is to say that rational political actors act in response to Ezoneplus in a way predictable once the socioeconomic outcomes of the enlargement process have been analysed.Regional Input, Belgium, The Netherlands, France, Austria, Germany

    Energy and CO2 emissions performance in China's regional economies: Do market-oriented reforms matter?

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    【Abstract】This paper employs a newly developed non-radial directional distance function to evaluate China's regional energy and CO2 emission performance for the period 1997–2009. Moreover, we analyze the impact of China's market-oriented reform on China's regional energy and carbon efficiency. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China's regions did not perform efficiently in energy use and CO2 emissions. Provinces in the east area generally performed better than those in the central and west areas.By contrast, provinces in the west area generally evidenced the lowest efficiency. Second, Market-or-iented reforms, especially the promotion of factor market, were found to have positive effect on the efficiency of energy use and CO2 emissions. Third, the share of coal in the total energy consumption and the expansion of the industrial sector were found to be negatively correlated with China's regional energy and CO2 emissions performance. Based on the empirical findings, we provide policy suggestions for enhancing energy and carbon efficiency in China.This paper is supported by the Research Fund of Newhuadu Business School, Ministry of Education Foundation (Funding no.10JZD0018), Basic Research Universities Special Foundation (Funding no.2010221051), Ministry of Education Foundation (Funding no. 10JBG013) and National Social Science Foundation (Funding no.09&ZD050). Kerui Du thanks the financial support of Yinxing Economic Research Fund

    Two-Sided Matching and Spread Determinants in the Loan Market

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    Empirical work on bank loans typically regresses loan spreads (markups of loan interest rates over a benchmark rate) on observed characteristics of banks, firms, and loans. The estimation is problematic when some of these characteristics are only partially observed and the matching of banks and firms is endogenously determined because they prefer partners that have higher quality. We study the U.S. bank loan market with a two-sided matching model to control for the endogenous matching, and obtain Bayesian inference using a Gibbs sampling algorithm with data augmentation. We find evidence of positive assortative matching of sizes, explained by similar relationships between quality and size on both sides of the market. Banks' risk and firms' risk are important factors in their quality. Controlling for the endogenous matching has a strong impact on estimated coefficients in the loan spread equation.Two-sided matching; Loan spread; Bayesian inference; Gibbs sampling with data augmentation

    Water management in public irrigation schemes in Vietnam

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    Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    A Comparative Analysis of the Development of the United States and European Union Biodiesel Industries

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    Worldwide production of biodiesel is growing at a rapid pace. Arguably, the European Union (EU) is the global leader in biodiesel production, but the United States has recently expanded its production. The growth of the biodiesel industry in both regions has been fueled by a series of government-provided financial incentives. However, the timing of the growth and incentive provisions, the nature of the main incentives, and the market conditions differ across regions. This article provides a comparative analysis of the EU and U.S. biodiesel industries, highlighting market and policy aspects that are leading to a rapid but distinct growth

    Application of defoliants alters leaf growth and gas exchange parameters for cotton defoliation

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    The goal of the current study was to determine how different chemical defoliants and application timing affected defoliation in cotton variety CO 17. The studies were conducted using a split-plot design with three applications at three different times as the main plot and seven defoliants as the subplot. Thidiazuron + Diuron (0.03%) defoliant reduced the gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance by reducing plant growth parameters, leaf area, leaf area index, specific leaf weight which significantly increased the defoliation percentage. The negative correlation of cotton growth and gas exchange parameters with defoliation percentage was observed in correlation studies. In conclusion, Thidiazuron + Diuron (0.03%) defoliant was found to be superior in action for improving leaf defoliation and its associated parameters. And also it may be a cost-effective cotton defoliant for aiding the mechanical picking of cotton bolls