1,162,188 research outputs found

    Oncological safety of stromal vascular fraction enriched fat grafting in two-stage breast reconstruction after nipple sparing mastectomy: long-term results of a prospective study

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    OBJECTIVE: Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is commonly used to treat implant palpability and prevent fibrosis and thinning in mastectomy skin flaps. A major limit to this procedure is volume retention over time, leading to the introduction of fat enrichment with stromal vascular fraction (SVF+AFT). Oncological concerns have been raised over the injection of an increased concentration of progenitors cells (ASCs) in the SVF. The aim of the study is to evaluate the long-term cancer recurrence risk of SVF+AFT cases compared to AFT, in patients undergoing Nipple Sparing Mastectomy (NSM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was designed to compare three groups of patients undergoing NSM followed by SVF+AFT, AFT or none (control group), after a two-stage breast reconstruction. Patients were strictly followed-up for at least 5-years from the second stage reconstructive procedure. Loco-regional and systemic recurrence rate were evaluated over time as the primary outcome. Logistic regression was used to investigate which factors were associated with recurrence events and independent variables of interest were: surgical technique, age above 50 years old, lympho-vascular invasion, oncological stage, adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant hormone therapy. RESULTS: 41 women were included in G1 (SVF+AFT), 64 in G2 (AFT), and 64 in G3 (control group). Loco-regional recurrence rate was 2.4% for G1, 4.7% for G2, and 1.6% for G3. Systemic recurrence was 7.3%, 3.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Among the variables included, there were no significant risk factors influencing a recurrence event, either loco-regional or systemic. In particular, SVF+AFT (G1) did not increase the oncological recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that both centrifuged and SVF-enhanced fat transfer have a similar safety level in comparison to patients who did not undergo fat grafting in breast reconstruction after NSM

    Non-vascular interventional procedures: effective dose to patient and equivalent dose to abdominal organs by means of dicom images and Monte Carlo simulation

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    This study evaluates X-ray exposure in patient undergoing abdominal extra-vascular interventional procedures by means of Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine (DICOM) image headers and Monte Carlo simulation. The main aim was to assess the effective and equivalent doses, under the hypothesis of their correlation with the dose area product (DAP) measured during each examination. This allows to collect dosimetric information about each patient and to evaluate associated risks without resorting to in vivo dosimetry. The dose calculation was performed in 79 procedures through the Monte Carlo simulator PCXMC (A PC-based Monte Carlo program for calculating patient doses in medical X-ray examinations), by using the real geometrical and dosimetric irradiation conditions, automatically extracted from DICOM headers. The DAP measurements were also validated by using thermoluminescent dosimeters on an anthropomorphic phantom. The expected linear correlation between effective doses and DAP was confirmed with an R(2) of 0.974. Moreover, in order to easily calculate patient doses, conversion coefficients that relate equivalent doses to measurable quantities, such as DAP, were obtained

    Redox signaling, Nox5 and vascular remodeling in hypertension

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    Purpose of review: Extensive data indicate a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox signaling in vascular damage in hypertension. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear, but oxidative post-translational modification of vascular proteins is critical. This review discusses how proteins are oxidatively modified and how redox signaling influences vascular smooth muscle cell growth and vascular remodeling in hypertension. We also highlight Nox5 as a novel vascular ROS-generating oxidase. Recent findings: Oxidative stress in hypertension leads to oxidative imbalance that affects vascular cell function through redox signaling. Many Nox isoforms produce ROS in the vascular wall, and recent findings show that Nox5 may be important in humans. ROS regulate signaling by numerous processes including cysteine oxidative post-translational modification such as S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation and sulfydration. In vascular smooth muscle cells, this influences cellular responses to oxidative stimuli promoting changes from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype. Summary: In hypertension, Nox-induced ROS production is increased, leading to perturbed redox signaling through oxidative modifications of vascular proteins. This influences mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulation, leading to altered cell growth and vascular remodeling in hypertension

    Vascular smooth muscle contraction in hypertension

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    Hypertension is a major risk factor for many common chronic diseases, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular dementia and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of hypertension include increased vascular resistance, determined in large part by reduced vascular diameter due to increased vascular contraction and arterial remodelling. These processes are regulated by complex interacting systems such as the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), sympathetic nervous system, immune activation and oxidative stress, which influence vascular smooth muscle function. Vascular smooth muscle cells are highly plastic and in pathological conditions undergo phenotypic changes from a contractile to a proliferative state. Vascular smooth muscle contraction is triggered by an increase in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), promoting actin-myosin cross-bridge formation. Growing evidence indicates that contraction is also regulated by calcium-independent mechanisms involving RhoA-Rho kinase (ROCK), protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, reactive oxygen species and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Activation of immune/inflammatory pathways and noncoding RNAs are also emerging as important regulators of vascular function. Vascular smooth muscle cell [Ca2+]i, not only determines the contractile state but also influences activity of many calcium-dependent transcription factors and proteins thereby impacting the cellular phenotype and function. Perturbations in vascular smooth muscle cell signaling and altered function influence vascular reactivity and tone, important determinants of vascular resistance and blood pressure. Here we discuss mechanisms regulating vascular reactivity and contraction in physiological and pathophysiological conditions and highlight some new advances in the field, focusing specifically on hypertension

    Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow.

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    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines

    Role of noncoding RNA in vascular remodelling

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    Purpose of review: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are becoming fundamentally important in the pathophysiology relating to injury-induced vascular remodelling. We highlight recent studies that demonstrate the involvement of ncRNAs in vein graft disease, in in-stent restenosis and in pulmonary arterial hypertension, with a particular focus on endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cell function. We also briefly discuss the emerging role of exosomal-derived ncRNAs and how this mechanism impacts on vascular function. Recent findings: ncRNAs have been described as novel regulators in the pathophysiology of vascular injury, inflammation, and vessel wall remodelling. In particular, several studies have demonstrated that manipulation of miRNAs can reduce the burden of pathological vascular remodelling. Such studies have also shown that exosomal miRNA-mediated, cell-to-cell communication between endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells is critical in the disease process. In addition to miRNAs, lncRNAs are emerging as regulators of vascular function in health and disease. Although lncRNAs are complex in both their sheer numbers and mechanisms of action, identifying their contribution to vascular disease is essential. Summary: Given the important roles of ncRNAs in vascular injury and remodelling together will their capacity for cell-to-cell communication, manipulating ncRNA might provide novel therapeutic interventions

    Drug treatment of hypertension: focus on vascular health

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    Hypertension, the most common preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death, is a growing health burden. Serious cardiovascular complications result from target organ damage including cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, ischaemic heart disease and renal failure. While many systems contribute to blood pressure (BP) elevation, the vascular system is particularly important because vascular dysfunction is a cause and consequence of hypertension. Hypertension is characterised by a vascular phenotype of endothelial dysfunction, arterial remodelling, vascular inflammation and increased stiffness. Antihypertensive drugs that influence vascular changes associated with high BP have greater efficacy for reducing cardiovascular risk than drugs that reduce BP, but have little or no effect on the adverse vascular phenotype. Angiotensin converting enzyme ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) improve endothelial function and prevent vascular remodelling. Calcium channel blockers also improve endothelial function, although to a lesser extent than ACEIs and ARBs. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers improve endothelial function and reduce arterial stiffness, and have recently become more established as antihypertensive drugs. Lifestyle factors are essential in preventing the adverse vascular changes associated with high BP and reducing associated cardiovascular risk. Clinicians and scientists should incorporate these factors into treatment decisions for patients with high BP, as well as in the development of new antihypertensive drugs that promote vascular health
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