9 research outputs found

    The power of oral and nasal calls to discriminate individual mothers and offspring in red deer, Cervus elaphus

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    [Background]: In most species, acoustical cues are crucial for mother-offspring recognition. Studies of a few species of ungulates showed that potential for individual recognition may differ between nasal and oral contact calls. [Results]: Vocalizations of 28 hinds and 31 calves of farmed Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) were examined with discriminant function analyses (DFA) to determine whether acoustic structure of their oral and nasal contact calls encodes information about the caller's identity. Contact calls were elicited by brief separation of individually identified animals by a distance over 10 m or by a bar fence. Both oral and nasal calls of both hinds and calves showed high potential to discriminate individuals. In hinds, individuality was significantly higher in the oral than in the nasal calls, whereas in calves, individuality was equally well expressed in both oral and nasal calls. For calves, the maximum fundamental frequency was higher and the duration was longer in oral calls than in nasal calls. For hinds, the maximum fundamental frequency and the duration were indistinguishable between oral and nasal calls. Compared to the pooled sample of oral and nasal calls, separate oral or nasal call samples provided better classifying accuracy to individual in either hinds or calves. Nevertheless, in both hinds and calves, even in the pooled sample of oral and nasal calls, the degree of individual identity was 2-3 times greater than expected by chance. For hinds that provided calls in both years, cross-validation of calls collected in 2012 with discriminant functions created with calls from 2011 showed a strong decrease of classifying accuracy to individual. [Conclusions]: These results suggest different potentials of nasal and oral calls to allow the discrimination of individuals among hinds, but not among red deer calves. The high potential of individual recognition even with the pooled sample of oral and nasal calls allows mother and young to remember only one set of acoustic variables for mutual vocal recognition. Poor between-year stability of individual characteristics of hind oral and nasal calls would require updating keys to individual recognition each calving season.This study was supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation, grant No 14-14-00237 (for IV, EV, OS and VM) and by Ministerio de EconomĂ­a y Competitividad, Spain, project AGL2012-38898 (for TL, AG and LG).Peer Reviewe

    Wavelength (February 1981)

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    https://scholarworks.uno.edu/wavelength/1003/thumbnail.jp

    Wavelength (February 1981)

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    https://scholarworks.uno.edu/wavelength/1003/thumbnail.jp

    The Invention of Truth. Salman Rushdie between Truth and Make-believe

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    [Italiano]: In questo libro, il mondo letterario di Salman Rushdie viene attentamente analizzato con un approccio critico ‘metalettico’. Intrecciando nei suoi romanzi realtĂ  e immaginazione, l’opera dell’autore anglo-indiano testimonia una sensibilitĂ  ‘metamoderna’, poichĂ© intreccia senza soluzione di continuitĂ  l’esperienza del mondo reale con gli intricati schemi del linguaggio e dell’arte. Partendo dalle contraddizioni e dagli errori presenti nella narrazione del primo capolavoro di Rushdie, I figli della mezzanotte, passando per la fusione di sacro e profano ne I versetti satanici, fino al movimento palindromo o di reciproca convergenza tra vita e scrittura in Quichotte, il volume accompagna chi legge in un viaggio alla scoperta del potere creativo del linguaggio e di come esso plasmi e venga plasmato dalla storia. L’opera di Salman Rushdie offre, infatti, l’opportunitĂ  di misurarsi con il rapporto instabile tra realtĂ  storica ed espressione artistica, aspirazioni individuali e bisogni collettivi, identitĂ  e disfacimento, veritĂ  e finzione./[English]: In this book, the literary world of Salman Rushdie is carefully scrutinised using a ‘metaleptical’ critical approach. Weaving together truth and fiction, reality and fantasy in his novels, the Anglo-Indian author’s work exudes a ‘metamodern’ sensibility as it seamlessly weaves the fabric of real-world experience with the intricate patterns of language and art. Beginning with the contradictions and errors in the narrative of Rushdie’s first masterpiece Midnight’s Children, through the blending of the sacred and the secular in The Satanic Verses, to the palindromic movement of the mutual convergence of life and writing in Quichotte, the volume takes the reader on a journey of discovery of the creative power of language and how it shapes and is shaped by history. Salman Rushdie’s work offers, in fact, the opportunity to engage in a nuanced examination of the balance between historical reality and artistic expression, individual aspirations and collective needs, continuity and decay, truth and make-believe

    In search of the comprador: self-exoticisation in selected texts from the South Asian and Middle Eastern diasporas

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    This thesis is concerned with transnational literature and writers of the Middle Eastern and South Asian diasporas. It argues that the diasporic position of the authors enables their roles as comprador subjects. The thesis maintains that the figure of the comprador is always acted upon by its ontological predisposition, so that diasporic positionality often involves a single subject which straddles and speaks from two or more different subject positions. Comprador authors can be said to be co-opted by Western metropolitan publishing companies who stand to benefit by marketing the apparent marginality of the homelands about which these authors write. The thesis therefore proceeds from the notion that such a diasporic position is the paradoxical condition of the transnational subject or writer. I submit that there is, to some degree, a questionable element in the common political and cultural suggestions that emerge upon closer evaluation of diasporic literature. Indeed, a charge of complicity has been levelled against authors who write, apparently, to service two distinct entities – the wish to speak on behalf of a minority collective, as well as the imperial ‘centre’ which is the intended interlocutor of the comprador author. However, it is this difference, the implied otherness or marginality of the outsider within, which I argue is sometimes used by diasporic writers as a way of articulating with ‘authenticity’ the cultures and politics of their erstwhile localities. This thesis is concerned, therefore, with the representation of ‘the East’ in four novels by diasporic, specifically comprador writers, namely Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children, Hanif Kureishi’s The Buddha of Suburbia, and Khaled Hosseini’s The Kite Runner and A Thousand Splendid Suns. I suggest that the ‘third-world’ and transnational literature can also be a selling point for the transnational subject, whose representations may at times pander to preconceived ideas about ‘the Orient’ and its people. As an illustration of this double-bind, I offer a close reading of all the novels to suggest that on the one hand, the comprador author writes within the paradigm of the ‘writing back’ movement, as a counter-discourse to the Orientalist representations of the homeland. However, the corollary is that such an attempt to ‘write back’, in a sense, re-inscribes the very discourse it wishes to subvert, especially because the literature is aimed at a ‘Western’ audience. Moreover, the template of the comprador could be used to explain how a transnational post-9/11 text from an Afghan-American, for instance, may be put to the service of the imperial machine, and read, therefore, as a supporting document to the U.S. policy on Afghanistan

    Indian Ocean Literature in the Shade of Bandung

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    “Indian Ocean Literature in the Shade of Bandung” examines novels, plays, and nonfiction by contemporary writers from the Indian Ocean rim and its diaspora who have a strong interest in the effects of neoliberal economic policies upon the postcolonial nation-state. Focusing upon the contemporary Anglophone literatures of India and Malaysia, I locate middle-class skepticism regarding the feasibility—or even desirability—of constructing a postcolonial national imaginary that would be founded upon the politics of decolonization. At the same time, I find that important contemporary writers–Tan Twan Eng, Huzir Sulaiman, Arundhati Roy, and Aravind Adiga—express a marked ambivalence toward the rapid globalization of their national homelands; they critique the growth of a transnational consumerism with political, material, and cultural ties to the west. Highlighting connections between the mediation of a literary marketplace and the cultural production of a comprador bourgeoisie, I argue, enables each of these authors to stage a double critique of neoliberalism and reactionary nationalism—the latter of which may feed upon discontent sown by neoliberal policies among the region’s most economically underdeveloped communities. Furthermore, each of these literary representations gestures toward a regional transnationalism that is oriented around the ideal geographies of the maritime Indian Ocean, which utopian inflection I trace to the Afro-Asian Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. I therefore place this contemporary writing into conversation with that of literary precursors—including Abdullah Hussein, Anita Desai, and Salman Rushdie— who were more immediately concerned with the legacy of Third World Internationalism. In each case, I have been interested to know how works of contemporary fiction seek to capture the spirit of regional cooperation that marked Bandung, and how they employ it in the service of utopian imagination and ideology critique. Situating contemporary literature in relation to this earlier moment helps me to clarify role that Bandung continues to play in mediating a literary marketplace and local reading culture that are marked by the seductions and anxieties of global consumer culture. I conclude that these writers stage a recuperation of Bandung internationalism in an attempt to imagine a global middle-class—one that would be capable of enjoying the fruits of neoliberal economic development, while resisting the forms of political complicity that have historically marked the comprador bourgeoisie

    Nasal and oral calls in mother and young trunk-nosed saiga antelopes, <i>Saiga tatarica</i>

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    <div><p>The trunk-like nose of the saiga antelope <i>Saiga tatarica</i> is a striking example of an exaggerated trait, assumed to having evolved as a dust filter for inhaled air. In addition, it functions to elongate the vocal tract in harem saiga males for producing low-formant calls that serve as a cue to body size for conspecifics. This study applies the source–filter theory to the acoustics of nasal, oral and nasal-and-oral calls that were recorded from a captive herd of 24 mother and 32 neonate saigas within the first 10 days postpartum. Anatomical measurements of the nasal and oral vocal tracts of two specimens (one per age class) helped to establish the settings for the analysis of formants. In both mother and young, the lower formants of nasal calls/call parts were in agreement with the source–filter theory, which suggests lower formants for the longer nasal vocal tract than for the shorter oral vocal tract. Similar fundamental frequencies of the nasal and oral parts of nasal-and-oral calls were also in agreement with the source–filter theory, which postulates the independence of source and filter. However, the fundamental frequency was higher in oral than in nasal calls, probably due to the higher emotional arousal during the production of oral calls. We discuss production mechanisms and the ontogeny of formant patterns of oral and nasal calls among bovid and cervid species with and without a trunk-like nose.</p></div
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