25,802 research outputs found

    Thrombospondin-3 augments injury-induced cardiomyopathy by intracellular integrin inhibition and sarcolemmal instability.

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    Thrombospondins (Thbs) are a family of five secreted matricellular glycoproteins in vertebrates that broadly affect cell-matrix interaction. While Thbs4 is known to protect striated muscle from disease by enhancing sarcolemmal stability through increased integrin and dystroglycan attachment complexes, here we show that Thbs3 antithetically promotes sarcolemmal destabilization by reducing integrin function, augmenting disease-induced decompensation. Deletion of Thbs3 in mice enhances integrin membrane expression and membrane stability, protecting the heart from disease stimuli. Transgene-mediated overexpression of α7β1D integrin in the heart ameliorates the disease predisposing effects of Thbs3 by augmenting sarcolemmal stability. Mechanistically, we show that mutating Thbs3 to contain the conserved RGD integrin binding domain normally found in Thbs4 and Thbs5 now rescues the defective expression of integrins on the sarcolemma. Thus, Thbs proteins mediate the intracellular processing of integrin plasma membrane attachment complexes to regulate the dynamics of cellular remodeling and membrane stability

    Thrombospondin 1 precedes and predicts the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in glomerular disease in the rat

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    Thrombospondin 1 precedes and predicts the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in glomerular disease in the rat. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is one of the most important histologic features that predicts progression in kidney disease. Thrombospondin 1 is an extracellular matrix protein that can activate latent TGF-β, a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. We examined the expression of thrombospondin 1 in several animal models of glomerulonephritis (anti-Thy1 model, aminonucleoside nephrosis, passive Heymann nephritis) that are associated with tubulointerstitial disease. Thrombospondin 1 mRNA and protein were transiently increased in tubular cells, myofibroblasts and some macrophages in areas of tubulointerstitial injury. Thrombospondin 1 expression always preceded the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and correlated quantitatively and spatially with the later development of interstitial fibrosis. Thrombospondin 1 expression predicted the severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis better than the degree of macrophage or myofibroblast accumulation. Thrombospondin 1 expression was associated with increased expression and activation of TGF-β1 and decreased expression of LAP-TGF-β in areas of tubulointerstitial injury. We conclude that thrombospondin 1 is an early marker predicting the development of tubulointerstitial kidney disease. De novo expression of thrombospondin 1 is associated and colocalized with increased expression of TGF-β1 and decreased expression of LAP-TGF-β during the development of tubulointerstitial disease in vivo. These data are consistent with the possibility that thrombospondin 1 may be an endogenous activator of TGF-β

    Activation of human NK cells by Plasmodium-infected red blood cells.

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    This chapter describes a protocol to assess activation of human NK cells following in vitro stimulation with malaria-infected red blood cells. Activation is assessed by flow cytometry, staining for cell surface expression of CD69 and accumulation of intracellular IFN-γ. Procedures are described for in vitro propagation and purification of Plasmodium falciparum parasites, separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from heparinized blood by density centrifugation, in vitro culture of PBMC and for staining and analysis of PBMC by flow cytometry. Some examples of typical FACS plots are shown

    ADAMTS proteinases: a multi-domain, multi-functional family with roles in extracellular matrix turnover and arthritis

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    Members of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family are known to influence development, angiogenesis, coagulation and progression of arthritis. As proteinases their substrates include the von Willebrand factor precursor and extracellular matrix components such as procollagen, hyalectans (hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans including aggrecan), decorin, fibromodulin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. ADAMTS levels and activities are regulated at multiple levels through the control of gene expression, mRNA splicing, protein processing and inhibition by TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases). A recent screen of human cartilage has shown that multiple members of the ADAMTS family may be important in connective tissue homeostasis and pathology

    Natural polymorphism in the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Plasmodium falciparum

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    We have developed a typing system using natural sequence variation in the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) gene of Plasmodium falciparum. This method permits a haplotype to be assigned to any particular TRAP gene. We have applied this method to a hospital-based, case control-study in Mali. Previous sequence variation and conservation in TRAP has been confirmed. Particular TRAP haplotypes can be used as geographic hallmarks. Because of the high level of conflict between characters, we have examined the phylogenetic relationships between parasites using a network approach. Having received patient samples from urban and periurban areas of Bamako, the majority of haplotypes were closely related and distinct from TRAP sequences present in other continents. This suggests that the structure of TRAP can only tolerate a limited number of sequence variations to preserve its function but that this is sufficient to allow the parasite to evade the host's immune system until a long-lived immune response can be maintained. It may also reflect host genetics in that certain variants may escape the host immune response more efficiently than others. For vaccine design, sequences from the major regional variants may need to be considered in the production of effective subunit vaccines

    In Vitro Impact of Triatomine Salivary Glands Extracts Introduced to Endothelial Cells

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    Chagas Disease (AKA Trypanosomiasis) is caused by biting/feeding behavior from the arthropod vector Triatoma (subfamily of Reduviidae family), that house the endoparasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which can then be passed to human and mammalian hosts (Schmidt, et al., 2011). Resources are currently being utilized to help minimize the effects and susceptibility of Chagas within endemic areas. Previous research has demonstrated that there are biochemical interactions between specific Triatoma salivary proteins and host cells (Ribeiro, Assumpção, Van Pham, Francischetti, & Reisenman, 2012).This study examined the interactions made from salivary proteins procured from the T. sanguisuga and T. indictiva species with the expression of two glycoproteins, fibronectin (angiogenic) and thrombospondin (antiangiogenic) when exposed to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs)

    The binding of glycosaminoglycans to peptides : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

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    The overall aim this study was to examine the possibility of using immobilised polypeptide chains to fractionate/separate Glycosaminoglycans (GAG's) from mixtures. Initially individual samples of three GAG classes (chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and heparin) were characterised to establish purity and provide basic information. Once these samples had been characterised the samples were treated as standards. Three short poly-l-lysine (PLL) chains with defined length and orientation were synthesized. As a control a PLL chain with 633 residues was immobilised. The interaction of the GAG standards with these resins did not replicate published solution binding behaviour of longer PLL chains. This suggested a different mode of binding. The interaction of two lengths of PLL (126 and 633 residues) and the K8G peptide with the GAG standards in solution was investigated. These studies demonstrated that the mode of binding of GAG's to short PLL chains was radically different to the earlier reported solution binding studies. β-Strand dominates with the short PLL chains instead of α-helix established in the published solution binding studies. The interaction of two peptides PCI (264-283) and thrombospondin peptide with the GAG standards was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy. In the case of the PCI peptide, each GAG induced different secondary structures. Chondroitin sulphate and heparin induced an α-helix, whereas dermatan sulphate gave β-strands. Heparin and dermatan sulphate induced double the amount of secondary structure compared to chondroitin sulphate. The strength of the interaction of GAG's with the peptide was also measured by the concentration of salt required to dissociate 50% of the complex. The figures for dermatan sulphate and heparin were found to be 0.1 and 0.3 M salt respectively. The binding of the GAG standards to the thrombospondin peptide did not elicit any detectable change in conformation of the peptide. Critical examination of published material on the interaction of GAG's (principally heparin) with short peptides, prompted the writer to propose two new complementary models. The first model examines binding in terms of the conformation of the peptide induced by binding to the GAG. It is composed of three components, the periodicity of polar and nonpolar residues within the peptide sequence, the spacing of pairs of basic residues and the spacing of pairs of acidic and basic residues. This model is successfully able to rationalise the binding behaviour of a number of GAG/peptide interactions in terms of the dominant secondary structure and the biological activity. The model is able to make a number of specific predictions. The second model examines the strength of the interaction between heparin and peptides containing the proposed consensus sequences for GAG binding sites. A significant correlation between the binding strength and an attribute derived from the sequence of the peptide was found using only one assumption. The assumption was that the peptides in the correlation bound to heparin with significant levels of β-strand. For the first time it is possible to rationalise the behaviour of GAG/peptide interactions in a coherent manner. The design of peptides that are capable of binding to specific GAG's now seems possible

    Development of ex vivo organ culture models to mimic human corneal scarring

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    PURPOSE: To develop ex vivo organ culture models of human corneal scarring suitable for pharmacological testing and the study of the molecular mechanisms leading to corneal haze after laser surgery or wounding. METHODS: Corneas from human donors were cultured ex vivo for 30 days, either at the air-liquid interface (AL) or immersed (IM) in the culture medium. Histological features and immunofluorescence for fibronectin, tenascin C, thrombospondin-1, and α-smooth muscle actin were graded from 0 to 3 for control corneas and for corneas wounded with an excimer laser. The effects of adding 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) to the culture medium and of prior complete removal of the epithelium and limbus, thus preventing reepithelialization, were also analyzed on wounded corneas. Collagen III expression was detected with real-time PCR. RESULTS: Wounding alone was sufficient to induce keratocyte activation and stromal disorganization, but it was only in the presence of added TGF-β1 that intense staining for fibronectin and tenascin C was found in the AL and IM models (as well as thrombospondin-1 in the AL model) and that α-smooth muscle actin became detectable. The scar-like appearance of the corneas was exacerbated when TGF-β1 was added and reepithelialization was prevented, resulting in the majority of corneas becoming opaque and marked upregulation of collagen III. CONCLUSIONS: THE MAIN FEATURES OF CORNEAL SCARRING WERE REPRODUCED IN THESE TWO COMPLEMENTARY MODELS: the AL model preserved differentiation of the epithelium and permits the topical application of active molecules, while the IM model ensures better perfusion by soluble compounds

    Thrombospondin-1/CD47 interaction regulates Th17 and treg differentiation in psoriasis

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    Accumulating evidence on the role of Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in the immune response has emerged during the last years. In spite of the importance of TSP-1 not only as anti-angiogenic factor but also as an immunomodulatory molecule, studies on the role of TSP-1 in psoriasis have been neglected. TSP-1 and CD47 expression were analyzed in skin samples from psoriasis patients and control subjects using RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Expression of these molecules was also evaluated in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells, moDCs, and circulating primary DCs. The functional role of TSP-1/CD47 signaling axis in psoriasis was assessed in Th17 and Treg differentiation assays. Additionally, small interfering RNA assays specific to TSP-1 were performed in CD4+ T cells and monocyte derived DC to specifically evaluate the function of this protein. Lesional skin of psoriasis patients expressed lower TSP-1 and CD47 mRNA levels compared to non-lesional skin or skin from controls. Immunofluorescence staining revealed decreased expression of CD47 in CD45+ dermal cells from psoriasis samples compared to control subjects. Peripheral CD4+ T cells and circulating primary DCs from psoriasis also expressed lower levels of CD47 compared to controls. Although no significant differences were detected in TSP-1 expression in CD4+ T cells and moDCs between patients and controls, TSP-1 expression in psoriasis patients inversely correlated with disease activity evaluated by the Psoriasis Area and Index Activity. Furthermore, exogenous TSP-1 inhibited Th17 differentiation and stimulated the differentiation of CD4+ T cells toward Treg cells. Furthermore, RNA interference specific for TSP-1 confirmed the role of this molecule as a negative regulator of T cell activation. Because of the impact of TSP-1/CD47 signaling axis in Th17 and Treg differentiation, a dysregulated expression of these molecules in the immune cells from psoriasis patients may favor the exacerbated inflammatory response in this diseaseInstituto de Salud Carlos III (AES 2017): PI17/01972 to ED. Janssen; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO): Plan Nacional de Salud SAF2017-82886-R, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV); Proyecto Integrado de Excelencia PIE13/00041, Instituto de Salud Carlos III to FS-M, Instituto de Salud Carlos III PI16/02166, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Banco Santander (grant 2017/EEUU/03), and Red Temática de Excelencia en Investigación en Hipoxia (SAF 2017-90794-REDT) to MJC. This research has been co-financed by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER

    The pituitary TGFb1 system as a novel target for the treatment of resistant prolactinomas

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    Prolactinomas are the most frequently observed pituitary adenomas and most of themrespond well to conventional treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs). However, a subsetof prolactinomas fails to respond to such therapies and is considered as DA-resistantprolactinomas (DARPs). New therapeutic approaches are necessary for these tumors.Transforming growth factor b1 (TGFb1) is a known inhibitor of lactotroph cell proliferationand prolactin secretion, and it partly mediates dopamine inhibitory action. TGFb1 is secretedto the extracellular matrix as an inactive latent complex, and its bioavailability is tightlyregulated by different components of the TGFb1 system including latent binding proteins,local activators (thrombospondin-1, matrix metalloproteases, integrins, among others), andTGFb receptors. Pituitary TGFb1 activity and the expression of different components of theTGFb1 system are regulated by dopamine and estradiol. Prolactinomas (animal models andhumans) present reduced TGFb1 activity as well as reduced expression of several componentsof the TGFb1 system. Therefore, restoration of TGFb1 inhibitory activity represents a noveltherapeutic approach to bypass dopamine action in DARPs. The aim of this review is tosummarize the large literature supporting TGFb1 important role as a local modulator ofpituitary lactotroph function and to provide recent evidence of the restoration of TGFb1activity as an effective treatment in experimental prolactinomasFil: Recouvreux, Maria Victoria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentina. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Camilletti, María Andrea. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Rifkin, Daniel B.. University of New York; Estados UnidosFil: Diaz, Graciela Susana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Fundación de Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; Argentin
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