80 research outputs found

    Abstracts

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    Abstracts for Ethnic Studies Review, Vol. 36, No. 1&2, 2013

    Systemic Racism of the UNICEF Germany\u27s Ads Depicting Children in Blackface

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    In the summer of 2007, UNICEF Germany released four ads containing the use of Blackface. However, neither the German population, nor UNICEF Germany found the use of Blackface insulting or racist when in fact Americans, who have the history of Blackface Theater, were appalled at the display of white German children with mud on their faces, portraying Africans. Through the use of Joe R. Feagin\u27s theory of systemic racism, this paper rhetorically analyzed whether the UNICEF ads should be considered racist outside the American experience of Blackfacing and Blackface Theater. The analysis revealed the UNICEF ads are racist under the systemic racism theory

    Trusting an Abusive System: Systemic Racism and Black Political Engagement

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    Africana people in America have relied upon the utilization of political participation in order to address the economic and societal ills that plague its community. Africana people have made strides at all levels of the American government. Africana people were a vital voting block that helped to elect the first American President of African descent. However, studies have shown that the conditions of Africana people in America have not substantially changed since the Voting Rights Act of 1 965 was enacted. Africana political participation has not equated to socioeconomic equality on a large scale for the Africana community. Utilizing Feagin\u27s Systemic Racism Theory, this project looks to examine why solely relying upon the American political system is symptomatic of disagency for Africana people and argues that this dis-agency does not empower our people to seek solutions. It places the power to liberate in the oppressor\u27 s hands, thus maintaining the inequality that continues to exist in America. This article also argues for Africana people to look to themselves as the avenue for addressing the societal ills that it faces. It also argues that Africana people must be their own mechanism for liberation. In addition, the terms Africana and Black will be used interchangeably in the project because those terms are most readily identifiable to people of African descent living in America

    Does English football warrant the Rooney Rule? Assessing the thoughts of British Asian coaches

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    This article examines the Rooney Rule and offers the thoughts of British Asian football coaches working in English football in response to this policy implementation. The Rooney Rule, first piloted by English Football League (EFL) clubs during the 2016-17 season, makes it compulsory for all 72 EFL clubs to interview at least one black, Asian or minority ethnic (BAME) candidate (if an application has been received) for all managerial and first-team coaching roles. And, on 9 January 2018, the Football Association (FA) revealed that they had also adopted the Rooney Rule for all coaching jobs relating to the England national team. Because English football harbours so few BAME coaches, calls for the Rooney Rule to be introduced in English football had started to increase in volume, and led to its trial inception. But, is this policy welcomed or opposed among British Asian coaches? What fundamental barriers does this policy overlook? Is English football ready for the Rooney Rule? And, do British Asian coaches, a group believed to benefit from this positive action policy, deem that this rule is the answer to help facilitate positive change? With the aid of empirical research, this article critically examines and assesses the potential impact of the Rooney Rule and recommends additional inclusionary practices

    Leveling the Playing Field: Sport and Resistance in Low-Wealth Communities

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    A consequence of systemic racism in the United States is low-wealth minority neighborhoods that are segregated from the rest of society and whose residents have less opportunities for social mobility than the general population. These neighborhoods often become the target of post-racial neoliberal projects of community development that emphasize individual development and achievement, or assisting residents with “escaping” their community as a means of achieving social mobility. One of the major forms of development is sport for development, aimed at youth in low-wealth minority neighborhoods. Here I call for a new narrative of community development that is critical, taking into account the significance of race at the individual and structural level for shaping the everyday experiences of residents of low-wealth neighborhoods. This new narrative should be asset-based, and make use of critical race concepts, such as community cultural wealth, and critical models, such as the Black Organizational Autonomy model, to reframe community development as a process of resistance capable of transforming both individuals and communities. My case study of the Pearson Youth Alliance football and soccer programs provides an example of the critical praxis of sport for development in a low-wealth minority neighborhood in the southern United States. I elaborate on this new narrative of development, especially the ways residents of the Pearson neighborhood perceive the work of the Pearson Youth Alliance and frame it as an ongoing project of resistance to manifestations of systemic racism

    Opportunity, but at what cost? African-American parents\u27 experiences in a predominantly white school

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    National measures of student achievement, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), provide evidence of the gap in success between African-American and white students. Despite national calls for increased school accountability and focus on achievement gaps, many African-American children continue to struggle in school academically, as compared to their white peers. Ladson-Billings (2006) argues that a deeper understanding of the legacy of disparity in funding for schools serving primarily African-American students, shutting out African-American parents from civic participation, and unfair treatment of African-Americans despite their contributions to the United States is necessary to complicate the discourse about African-American student performance. The deficit model that uses student snapshots of achievement such as the NAEP and other national assessments to explain the achievement gap suggests that there is something wrong with African-American children. As Cowen Pitre (2104) explains, however, “the deficit model theory blames the victim without acknowledging the unequal educational and social structures that deny African-American students access to a quality education (2014, pg. 212). To reframe the deficit discourse, Linda Darling-Hammond (2010) identifies key factors contributing to an opportunity gap including, unequal access to qualified teachers and a lack of access to high-quality curriculum. This dissertation examined the opportunity gap at a particular predominantly white school. Specifically, I explored the experiences of African-American parents as they navigated and negotiated the institutional challenges and everyday racism they faced in a suburban environment. Four African-American parents from one suburban school district took part in this study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observations, and was informed by theoretical work around race, racism, systemic racism theory, whiteness, racial microaggressions, and the unconscious habits of racial privilege. Results of this study revealed that African-American parents experienced various manifestations of institutional racism and everyday occurrences of microaggressions that required them to navigate and negotiate this suburban environment. Institutional racism and everyday instances of microaggressions restricted parents’ ability to fully access the educational opportunities that were available for their children

    Invisible Minority: Experience of Middle Eastern American Women in Using Health Care Services

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    Issues related to the experiences of minority populations have received increasing attention during the last few decades. The research has been mostly focused on minority populations that are known to the U.S. general population including Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and African Americans. However, the Middle Eastern American population has received little attention. As the research on health disparities advances, there has been a growing attempt to reduce disparities that cause Middle Eastern populations to have chronic or life-threatening diseases. Some of these research studies have looked at the experiences of discrimination as a factor that would make a difference in the health of this population. While these studies are important, they usually engage a quantitative research method that is not fully equipped to evaluate the experiences of discrimination in a fuller sense. Addressing this gap in the literature, I conducted 30 in-depth interviews with Middle Eastern American women about their experiences with the U.S. health care system. Based on these interviews, there seem to be signs of anti-Middle Eastern racial framing among health care professionals that often caused significant problems for these respondents in their attempts to access the U.S. health care system

    The “American Dream” in Black and White Populations: A Perceptions Versus Reality Analysis

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    Do White and Black Americans equally believe in the American Dream? Does the American Dream offer hope for Black Americans to hold on to, or has racial oppression made the dream feel out of reach? Since such ideas, like the promise of social mobility offered by freedom, motivate and inform economic, social, and political beliefs, understanding how such narratives function is of critical need. In this study, I used the 2012 Outlook on Life Survey (N=2,294) to analyze the differences in attitudes about the American Dream between Black and White populations in the United States. I analyzed data about how far along the American Dream participants will progress, how hard it will be for them to have a financially secure retirement, and how hard it will be for them to do better than their parents. I hypothesized that Black participants would be more pessimistic about the American Dream and would view that it is harder for them to do better than their parents based on previous studies about institutional, cultural, and internalized racism. My findings did not support my hypotheses. I found no significant differences in Black and White attitudes about American Dream progression and found that Black participants were more likely to report that it would be easier for them to do better than their parents and to have a financially secure retirement. My findings suggest that Americans generally feel similarly about the American Dream, despite racial differences

    THE PORTRAYAL OF SYSTEMIC RACISM IN ANGIE THOMAS’ THE HATE U GIVE

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    SHAFIRA NANDA RIZKIYA. 2020. POTRET RASISME SISTEMIK dalam THE HATE U GIVE Karya Angie Thomas. Skripsi: Jakarta, Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap bagaimana proses rasisme sistemik bekerja terhadap orang kulit hitam di Amerika dalam novel The Hate U Give karya Angie Thomas. Dengan menjabarkan teori Feagin yaitu enam karakteristik rasisme sistemik: pembingkaian rasial orang kulit putih, hierarki rasial, interaksi sosial antara pemegang kuasa dengan yang tidak memiliki kuasa, perjuangan dan perlawanan yang mejadi satu kesatuan, ketidakadilan dalam hal memperkaya orang kulit putih dan ketidakadilan dalam hal mempermiskin orang kulit hitam, penelitian ini mengaplikasikan metode analisa deskriptif untuk mengetahui bagaimana proses terjadinya rasisme sistemik dalam novel The Hate U Give. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jika rasisme sistemik dapat terjadi ketika masyarakat menormalisasikan penggunaan pembingkaian rasial orang kulit putih terhadap semua orang, lalu mengakui adanya hierarki rasial dan menanamkan pemikiran bahwa menjadi orang kulit putih itu normal. Ketika orang kulit hitam percaya dan setuju dengan semua pembingakain rasial yang diciptakan oleh orang kulit putih terhadap mereka, akan membuat mereka lebih mudah untuk dikendalikan nantinya. Berada di bawah kendali orang kulit putih, para orang kulit hitam harus berjuang untuk menghidupi hidupnya. Perlawanan orang kulit hitam menjadi kunci untuk menghentikan dan merubah semua penindasan yang terjadi terhadap mereka. Hasil dari perlawanan orang kulit hitam ini nantinya bisa menjadi hal yang menguntungkan bagi orang kulit putih atau bahkan merugikan orang kulit hitam. Proses rasisme sistemik ini terjadi secara berulang setiap tahunnya dan menghasilhkan beberapa lapisan penindasan baru bagi orang kulit hitam anntinya. Kata kunci: Rasisme, Rasisme sistemik, Orang kulit hitam Amerika SHAFIRA NANDA RIZKIYA. 2020. The Portrayal of Systemic Racism In Angie Thomas’The Hate U Give. A Thesis: Jakarta, English Literature Study Program, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. This study aims to reveal how the process of systemic racism works toward Black American in The Hate U Give written by Angie Thomas. Deploying Feagin’s six-features of systemic racism theory: white racial frame, racial hierarchy, alienated social relation (control vs. loss-control), constant struggle and resistance, unjust white enrichment, and unjust black impoverishment, this study applied descriptive analytical method to analyse the process of systemic racism works in The Hate U Give novel. The result of this study showed that systemic racism happened when the society normalized white racial frame, racial hierarchy and applied the thought of being white is normal to everyone in the society. When black people believed and agreed to all of racial frame and racial hierarchy that were created by white people, they would be so easily to be controlled. Being under control by white people, black people should be struggling to live their lives. The black resistance is the key to change and stop the oppression towards them. The result of resistance later can lead them to white enrichment or black impoverishment. The process of this systemic racism is repeated for years and always creates some new layers of the oppression towards black people. Keywords: Racism, Systemic Racism, Black America

    Revolutionary Departures: Reimagining the World of Black Fatherhood

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    The term “Deadbeat Dad” is often associated with Black fathers, suggesting they have relinquished their parental responsibilities. While research has emerged in recent years examining the social institution of Black fatherhood, many of these studies have yet to interpret their findings through an analytical lens that prioritizes race, gender, and social class status. To fill this gap, I utilize the theories of systemic racism and controlling images to explore how race, gender, and class-based oppression affects the fatherhood experiences of low-income, Black men. Further, I draw on these theories to explore how low-income, Black fathers challenge the credibility of the “Deadbeat Dad” narrative. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 low-income, Black fathers residing throughout metropolitan Atlanta to accomplish these aims. Findings reveal that systemic racism and controlling images create significant barriers for the fathers, particularly in terms of providing financial support for their children. Findings also indicate that the fathers viewed “being there” for their children as the most essential aspect of parenthood and relied on an assortment of parenting practices to improve the quality of their relationship with their offspring. Also, findings highlight how fathers relied on their religious and spiritual values to contend with the vexing institutional roadblocks they continually face. I conclude my dissertation by making several policy recommendations intended to enhance paternal engagement, strengthen the social institution of Black fatherhood, and combat the stereotypical image of the “Deadbeat” Black father
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