594 research outputs found

    Swelling and shrinking kinetics of a lamellar gel phase

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    We investigate the swelling and shrinking of L_beta lamellar gel phases composed of surfactant and fatty alcohol after contact with aqueous poly(ethylene-glycol) solutions. The height change Δh(t)\Delta h(t) is diffusion-like with a swelling coefficient, S: Δh=St\Delta h = S \sqrt{t}. On increasing polymer concentration we observe sequentially slower swelling, absence of swelling, and finally shrinking of the lamellar phase. This behavior is summarized in a non-equilibrium diagram and the composition dependence of S quantitatively described by a generic model. We find a diffusion coefficient, the only free parameter, consistent with previous measurements.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figures to appear in Applied Physics Letter

    On the theory of solitons of fluid pressure and solute density in geologic porous media, with applications to shale, clay and sandstone

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    In this paper we propose the application of a new model of transients of pore pressure p and solute density \r{ho} in geologic porous media. This model is rooted in the non-linear waves theory, the focus of which is advection and effect of large pressure jumps on strain (due to large p in a non-linear version of the Hooke law). It strictly relates p and \r{ho} evolving under the effect of a strong external stress. As a result, the presence of quick and sharp transients in low permeability rocks is unveiled, i.e. the non-linear Burgers solitons. We therefore propose that the actual transport process in porous rocks for large signals is not the linear diffusion, but could be governed by solitons. A test of an eventual presence of solitons in a rock is here proposed, and then applied to Pierre Shale, Bearpaw Shale, Boom Clay and Oznam-Mugu silt and clay. A quick analysis showing the presence of solitons for nuclear waste disposal and salty water intrusions is also analyzed. Finally, in a kind of "theoretical experiment" we show that solitons could also be present in Jordan and St. Peter sandstones, thus suggesting the occurrence of osmosis in these rocks

    Investigation Of Technological Properties Of Powder Of Eggplants

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    The aim of the article is to study and to generalize technological properties of eggplant powder, produced by infrared drying at temperatures 50-60 ºС. The results of the conducted complex of studies reflect main technological and consumption properties of the received puree that plays an important role at creating new culinary products.So, for studying technological properties of food eggplant powder, there was considered the complex of base functional-technological properties of powder, produced by infrared drying.For finding optimal conditions of rehydration of eggplant powders, there was studied the influence of such technological factors as: swelling ability; liquid; powder ratio; influence of the solvent temperature on renovation; renovation duration; degree of comminution of powders.Main parameters that influence the renovation ability of dried eggplants are investigated and studied in the article. The results of the studies of technological properties of eggplant powders prove their high rehydration properties. It gives a possibility to use powders at producing different culinary products not only for enriching them with functional ingredients, but also for giving them new technological properties.Based on the obtained results, there was elaborated and presented the new technological scheme of using renewed powders in food compositions

    Natural Variation for Seed Physical, Biochemical and Culinary traits in Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

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    Twenty genotypes of common bean including 17 breeding lines were evaluated for various seed physical, nutritional and culinary traits viz., seed colour, seed shape, seed brilliance, seed coat pattern, seed length, seed breadth and seed weight, traits protein content, phytic acid, raffinose, water absorption percentage, coat percentage, swelling and hydration coefficient as well as cooking score. Most of the genotypes were kidney shaped with plain seed coat and medium seed brilliance. Among biochemical traits, highest protein content was recorded for  Arka Anoop (22.15 %) followed by WB-341 (21.45 %), WB-216 (21.16 %) and WB-249 (20.99).  Low phytic acid was recorded in WB-970 (0.440 %), WB-258 (0.968 %) and WB-102 (1.068 %).  Low values for raffinose was recorded for WB-102 (3.800 mg/g) followed by WB-482 (3.833 mg/g). Highest water absorption percentage was recorded for WB-249 (136.363), Arka Anoop (131.818) and SFB-1 (126.923). The swelling coefficient was highest in case of WB-642 (300.000), WB-249 (266.667) and WB-335 (250.000) whereas lowest values for swelling coefficient were recorded in case of WB-341 (114.285), WB-216 (145.454) and WB-1006 (124.554). Among correlations between various seed physical, biochemical and culinary traits, raffinose was positively and significantly correlated with phytic acid. Phytic acid was also significantly and positively correlated with protein, coat proportion and 100-seed weight. Coat proportion was negatively correlated water absorption percentage, swelling coefficient, hydration coefficient as well as cooking time score. Cooking time score was positively correlated with hydration and swelling coefficients as well as seed weight but negatively correlated with coat proportion.Â

    Implementation of horizontal well CBM/ECBM technology and the assessment of effective CO2 storage capacity in a Scottish coalfield

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    Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Composite Energy Ltd., the BG Group, Scottish Power and the Royal Bank of Scotland for their funding and contributions towards the research reported in this paper.Non peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Structure-property relationships in glass-reinforced polyamide, Part 3: Effects of hydrolysis ageing on the dimensional stability and performance of short glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 66

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    We present results on an in-depth study of the effects of hydrolysis testing on the mechanical performance, weight change, and dimensional stability of injection moulded glass-fibre reinforced polyamide 66 based on two chopped fibre products with different sizing formulations. Composite and resin samples have been characterised both dry as moulded and after conditioning at either 120°C or 150°C for a range of times up to 1000 hours. The results reveal that hydrothermal ageing in water-glycol mixtures results in significant changes in the mechanical performance, weight, and dimensions of these materials. The negative effects of conditioning could be mitigated to some degree by the appropriate choice of the glass fibre sizing; however the sizing effect diminished with increasing conditioning time. All materials showed a weight increase due to conditioning at 120°C which was typical of a single Fickian diffusion process and there was clear evidence of multiple processes involved when conditioning at 150°C. It was not apparent that the glass fibre sizing affected the dimensional stability of the composites. We show that there is a strong correlation between the swelling of these samples and the level of fluid adsorption. Although the PA66 resin showed reasonably homogeneous swelling, the composites exhibited different levels of swelling depending on direction. These effects were well in line with the known effects of fibres on restriction of the matrix deformation (mechanical, thermal or moisture swelling) in the fibre direction. These differences correlate well with the average fibre orientation with respect to the various direction axes. Composite tensile strength and unnotched impact resistance appeared to scale inversely with the level of swelling of the material

    Дослідження ефекту розбухання при екструзійному формуванні полімерних профілів

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    Проведені дослідження ефекту розбухання при екструзійному формуванні полімерних профілів, визначено залежності розподілу швидкостей зсуву та лінійних швидкостей по довжині профілю, проаналізовано залежність коефіцієнта розбухання від коефіцієнта тертяResearch of the swelling effect in extrusion molding polymer profiles was done; the relationship between the shear rate and linear velocity along the length profile was defined; the dependence of swelling coefficient on friction coefficient was analyze

    The effect of adding carrot or beetroot powders on the quality indicators of round cracknel products

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    Received: February 1st, 2022 ; Accepted: April 5th, 2022 ; Published: April 28th, 2022 ; Correspondence: [email protected] relationship between carrot/beetroot powders added, the quantity and quality of gluten in the flour and the moisture, acidity, swelling coefficient and the quality indicators of round cracknel products has been studied. The carrot and beetroot powders, produced by Vitbiokor, LLC, and the premium wheat flour were used. The powders were introduced in a dry and hydrated form. The hydration was carried out at the hydromodule of 1:5 for 40 minutes. The particle size analysis of raw materials was conducted with the laser diffraction analyzer Malvern Mastersizer 2000. The proportion of particles of less than 200 µm in the flour made 100%, in the carrot powder - 77%, in the beetroot powder - 71%. The introduction of carrot/beetroot powders in the amount of 1.5%, 3.0%, 6.0% and 9.0% by weight of the flour reduces the amount of gluten. Still, it strengthens the latter, making it possible to mold products with developed porosity. The introduction of dry carrot powder in the amount of 6% into the sourdough and the dough (1.5%, 3.0%, 6.0% and 9.0%) increases the swelling coefficient of the end products by an average of 15%, while the introduction of the hydrated powder does it by 40%. Similarly, the introduction of the dry beetroot powder leads, on average, to a 12% increase and of the hydrated powder to a 22% increase. The obtained results proved the effectiveness of introducing carrot/beetroot powders (preference given to their hydrated types) into the recipe of round cracknel products