201,404 research outputs found

    BUSCA: An integrative web server to predict subcellular localization of proteins

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    Here, we present BUSCA (http://busca.biocomp.unibo.it), a novel web server that integrates different computational tools for predicting protein subcellular localization. BUSCA combines methods for identifying signal and transit peptides (DeepSig and TPpred3), GPI-anchors (PredGPI) and transmembrane domains (ENSEMBLE3.0 and BetAware) with tools for discriminating subcellular localization of both globular and membrane proteins (BaCelLo, MemLoci and SChloro). Outcomes from the different tools are processed and integrated for annotating subcellular localization of both eukaryotic and bacterial protein sequences. We benchmark BUSCA against protein targets derived from recent CAFA experiments and other specific data sets, reporting performance at the state-of-the-art. BUSCA scores better than all other evaluated methods on 2732 targets from CAFA2, with a F1 value equal to 0.49 and among the best methods when predicting targets from CAFA3. We propose BUSCA as an integrated and accurate resource for the annotation of protein subcellular localization

    Subcellular organization of UBE3A in human cerebral cortex.

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    BackgroundLoss of UBE3A causes Angelman syndrome, whereas excess UBE3A activity appears to increase the risk for autism. Despite this powerful association with neurodevelopmental disorders, there is still much to be learned about UBE3A, including its cellular and subcellular organization in the human brain. The issue is important, since UBE3A's localization is integral to its function.MethodsWe used light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to study the cellular and subcellular distribution of UBE3A in the adult human cerebral cortex. Experiments were performed on multiple tissue sources, but our results focused on optimally preserved material, using surgically resected human temporal cortex of high ultrastructural quality from nine individuals.ResultsWe demonstrate that UBE3A is expressed in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, and to a lesser extent in glial cells. We find that UBE3A in neurons has a non-uniform subcellular distribution. In somata, UBE3A preferentially concentrates in euchromatin-rich domains within the nucleus. Electron microscopy reveals that labeling concentrates in the head and neck of dendritic spines and is excluded from the PSD. Strongest labeling within the neuropil was found in axon terminals.ConclusionsBy highlighting the subcellular compartments in which UBE3A is likely to function in the human neocortex, our data provide insight into the diverse functional capacities of this E3 ligase. These anatomical data may help to elucidate the role of UBE3A in Angelman syndrome and autism spectrum disorder

    Retrograde trafficking of Argonaute 2 acts as a rate-limiting step for de novo miRNP formation on endoplasmic reticulum–attached polysomes in mammalian cells

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    microRNAs are short regulatory RNAs in metazoan cells. Regulation of miRNA activity and abundance is evident in human cells where availability of target messages can influence miRNA biogenesis by augmenting the Dicer1-dependent processing of precursors to mature microRNAs. Requirement of subcellular compartmentalization of Ago2, the key component of miRNA repression machineries, for the controlled biogenesis of miRNPs is reported here. The process predominantly happens on the polysomes attached with the endoplasmic reticulum for which the subcellular Ago2 trafficking is found to be essential. Mitochondrial tethering of endoplasmic reticulum and its interaction with endosomes controls Ago2 availability. In cells with depolarized mitochondria, miRNA biogenesis gets impaired, which results in lowering of de novo–formed mature miRNA levels and accumulation of miRNA-free Ago2 on endosomes that fails to interact with Dicer1 and to traffic back to endoplasmic reticulum for de novo miRNA loading. Thus, mitochondria by sensing the cellular context regulates Ago2 trafficking at the subcellular level, which acts as a rate-limiting step in miRNA biogenesis process in mammalian cells

    GAP activity, but not subcellular targeting, is required for Arabidopsis RanGAP cellular and developmental functions

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    The Ran GTPase activating protein (RanGAP) is important to Ran signaling involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, spindle organization, and postmitotic nuclear assembly. Unlike vertebrate and yeast RanGAP, plant RanGAP has an N-terminal WPP domain, required for nuclear envelope association and several mitotic locations of Arabidopsis thaliana RanGAP1. A double null mutant of the two Arabidopsis RanGAP homologs is gametophyte lethal. Here, we created a series of mutants with various reductions in RanGAP levels by combining a RanGAP1 null allele with different RanGAP2 alleles. As RanGAP level decreases, the severity of developmental phenotypes increases, but nuclear import is unaffected. To dissect whether the GAP activity and/or the subcellular localization of RanGAP are responsible for the observed phenotypes, this series of rangap mutants were transformed with RanGAP1 variants carrying point mutations abolishing the GAP activity and/or the WPP-dependent subcellular localization. The data show that plant development is differentially affected by RanGAP mutant allele combinations of increasing severity and requires the GAP activity of RanGAP, while the subcellular positioning of RanGAP is dispensable. In addition, our results indicate that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking can tolerate both partial depletion of RanGAP and delocalization of RanGAP from the nuclear envelope
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