195 research outputs found

    City design: what went wrong at Milton Keynes?

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    Practitioners need evaluations of why the intentions in plans fail in implementation. This paper seeks to identify and explain how the plans for neighbourhood layout in Milton Keynes so comprehensively failed in the process of realization. The 1970 plan should have generated dense development along urban main streets, lined with shops, services, bus stops and turnings. In the city as built, densities are lowest along the main roads; shops, services and bus stops are ensconced within residential and other blocks where they work badly; traffic is much faster; buses struggle to operate viably; and social mix objectives have probably been sacrificed. This failure is attributed to the Corporation's mistakes in traffic planning, to short-sighted private housebuilders, to rigid and unscientific DoE density controls and to slack thinking, drafting and drawing by the initial planning team, of which the author was a member. Suggestions are made for avoiding such disaster

    Reconsidering spaces left-over after planning

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    Suburbs in Melbourne present to us a unique context with which a new approach towards urban form can be devised using the existing conditions and opportunities found with infrastructural developments. This thesis contains the investigations on the various 'pathologies' of the urban fabric specifically on the potential use of 'Spaces Left-Over After Planning' as by-product to infrastructural development in relation to the reinvigoration of Melbourne suburbs under the influence of current and future metropolitan growth pressures. The contents of the research aims to demonstrate the potentials for urban diversification followed by densification using the already inherent characteristics of the selected suburbs (Oakleigh, Waverley and Broadmeadows) to facilitate the metropolitan expansion of Melbourne with the intention of encouraging ways in which suburban fabric can reach its matu rity along with new infrastructural developments to foster community engagement

    The Anchor (1968, Volume 12 Issue 07)

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    https://digitalcommons.ric.edu/the_anchor/1541/thumbnail.jp

    Oslos glemte tomter – en kartlegging av ubrukte arealressurser i indre by

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    Nåtidens praksis innenfor byutvikling er at ny bebyggelse plasseres innenfor etablerte tettstedsgrenser. I Oslo representerer Markagrensen bebyggelsens sluttpunkt. For å kunne bevare Markagrensen, må arealene innenfor byggesonen utnyttes så effektivt som mulig for å kunne imøtekomme den forventede befolkningsveksten. Oslo kommune har av den grunn ført en fortettingspolitikk som legger vekt på en fortetting innenfra og ut med et mål om å bli en kompakt by. Denne oppgaven er et bidrag til å øke bevisstheten rundt hvordan arealene i Oslos indre byggesone utnyttes. Formålet med oppgaven har vært å avdekke om det finnes en uutnyttet arealreserve, hva som karaktereiserer arealene, hva som hindrer en eventuell utbygging av disse arealene, og hvordan arealene kan tilføre kompakte bykvaliteter. Del en av oppgaven er løst med bruk av kartlegging som kvantitativ metode. Gjennom kartleggingen er ledige arealer og arealer som kan få en høyere utnyttelse, blitt kartfestet og kategorisert i et datasett som har gitt ny kunnskap om arealbruken i Oslos mest sentrale områder. Informasjon fra datasettet har blitt analysert med sikte på å finne ut om arealene kan være en ressurs, og hvorvidt det bør settes inn tiltak for å utnytte de. Del to av oppgaven er løst gjennom kvalitativ metode hvor funn fra analysedelen drøftes gjennom et teoretisk perspektiv om mulighetsrommet til eiendomsutvikling. Dette mulighetsrommet består av tre vegger; regulering, tomt og marked, hvorav ulike krefter og motkrefter utspiller seg i ulik grad etter arealkategoriene. Studiet har vist at det eksisterer et mangfold av ledige arealer. Det er infill, sloap, veiareal og feltutbygde blokkområder som utgjør den største ressursen. Arealkategoriene påvirkes ulikt av de tre veggene i mulighetsrommet. Varierende karaktertrekk ved arealene gjør at de vil kunne oppfylle forskjellige behov av bykvaliteter, og at det er ulike årsaker som hindrer at de blir utviklet. Infill og sloap kan tilføre byen kompakte bykvaliteter i form av en økt demografisk og funksjonell tetthet, men disse arealene har også mulighet til å veve sammen byens strukturer. Utviklingen av disse arealene hindres i stor grad av mangel på aktører som har byutvikling og ikke profitt som fokus og mål. Veiarealer og feltutbygde blokkområder har i kraft av tomtenes egenskaper en økt mulighet til å bebygges med større og varierte strukturer med flere funksjoner. Det vil være tomtestrukturen og reguleringsrisikoen som er de viktigste årsakene til at veiarealene ikke er utviklet. Feltutbygde blokkområder har et stort mulighetsrom, og få hinder, men eierstrukturen leder til at det disse er vanskelig å utnytte.Current practice in urban development is that new buildings are placed within established urban boundaries. In Oslo, Markagrensen represents the end point of the settlement. In order to preserve Markagrensen, the areas within the construction zone must be utilized as efficiently as possible in order to be able to meet the expected population growth. For this reason, the City of Oslo has pursued a densification policy that emphasizes densification from the inside out with a goal of becoming a compact city. This thesis is a contribution to raising awareness of how the areas in Oslo's inner building zone are utilized. The purpose of the thesis has been to uncover whether there is an unused area reserve, what characterizes the areas, what prevents a possible development of these areas, and how the areas can add compact urban qualities. Part one of the assignment is solved with the use of urban mapping as a quantitative method. Through the urban mapping, vacant areas and areas that can have a higher utilization have been mapped and categorized in a data set that has provided new knowledge about land use in Oslo's most central areas. Information from the data set has been analyzed with a view to finding out whether the areas can be a resource, and whether measures should be put in place to utilize them. Part two of the thesis is solved through a qualitative method where findings from the analysis part are discussed through a theoretical perspective on the opportunity space for real estate development. This opportunity space consists of three walls; regulation, plot and market, of which different forces and counter-forces take place to varying degrees according to the area categories. The study has shown that there is a diversity of vacant areas. It is infill, sloap, road areas and field-developed block areas that constitute the largest resource. The area categories are affected differently by the three walls in the opportunity space. Varying characteristics of the areas mean that they will be able to meet different needs for urban qualities, and that there are various reasons that prevent them from being developed. Infill and sloap can add compact city qualities to the city in the form of an increased demographic and functional density, but these areas also have the opportunity to weave together the city's structures. The development of these areas is largely hindered by a lack of actors who have urban development, and not profit, as their main goal. Due to the characteristics of the plots, road areas and field-developed block areas have an increased opportunity to be developed with larger and varied structures with several functions. It will be the plot structure and the regulatory risk that are the most important reasons why the road areas have not been developed. Field-developed block areas have a large opportunity space, and few obstacles, but the ownership structure means that these are difficult to utilize

    Garment Exporter View on Letter of Credit

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    Letter of credit is as ‘documentary credit'. This can offer a guarantee to the seller that they will be paid, and the buyer can be sure that no payment will be made until they receive the goods. The main advantage of using a letter of credit is that it can give security to both the seller and the buyer. A letter of Credit is the Buyer's Banker's promise to the Bank of the Seller / Exporter that the bank will honor the Invoice presented by the Exporter on due date and make payment, provided that the Seller/Exporter has complied with all the requirements and conditions set by the Importer mentioned in letter of credit or the Buyer's Purchase Order and produced documentary evidence to prove compliance, along with the necessary shipment related documentation

    [Peer Review] Marketing Systems of Calf Bali

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    The names of the places without a name

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    [EN] The contemporary city often generates places without name, spaces of diffuse identity that have received multiple names from the urban theory. The purpose of this work is to analyze to what extent the interpretation of these spaces associated with these names is convergent or divergent, that is, elucidate if they are different terms to designate the same urban reality or if, on the contrary, these names refer to different aspects of that reality, so they complement themselves as an explanation of it.[ES] La ciudad contemporánea genera con facilidad lugares sin nombre, espacios de identidad difusa que han recibido múltiples nombres desde la teoría urbanística. El objeto del trabajo es analizar en qué medida la interpretación de estos espacios asociada a estos nombres es convergente o divergente, es decir, dilucidar si se trata de términos diferentes para designar una misma realidad urbana o si, por el contrario, estos nombres hacen referencia a diferentes aspectos de esa realidad, por lo que se complementan como explicación de la misma.Pérez Igualada, J. (2018). Los nombres de los lugares sin nombre. ACE Arquitectura, ciudad y entorno. Architecture City and Environment (Online). 13(38):129-150. doi:10.5821/ace.13.38.5419S129150133

    College Student Attitude Towards Social Media

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    Communication is a key factor in today s world. The method that individual choose to communicate their message has an impact on the effectiveness of that message. It is essential to exchange ideas effectively for developing and sustaining relationship's the main purpose of every communication is to obtain some results, that is to secure action by the receivers. Know the top five commonly using social media among the students know the most influence the sources of information to use the social media. Identify the purpose of using social media. Give the suggestion, findings. Social media service plays a vital role in servers and users. Over the last years, people are more and involved in social media use and are interacting with each other on social media sites. The two social media sites. Companies are already using what's app as well as Facebook to interest with their college students about their products and services. The present study is only an attempt to know about the satisfaction of social media services in Theni District and it is observed that all the college students are satisfied with the functioning of social media services
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