3,400 research outputs found

    Effect of silicic acid and other silicon compounds on fungal growth in oligotrophic and nutrient-rich media

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    Mycelium grew from a spore-mycelial inoculum of Aspergillus oryzae added to ultra-pure water (upw) containing silicon compounds, but did not grow in upw alone. Growth of other fungi also occurred in upw only when silicon compounds were added. Increased growth of A. oryzae, and other fungi, also followed the addition of silicic acid and other silicon compounds to Czapek Dox. Aspergillus oryzae solubilized silicon compounds in both upw and nutrient-rich media. Although interactions between microorganisms and silicon have been generally neglected, the results show that silicon compounds can increase fungal growth under both oligotrophic and nutrient-rich conditions

    Did silicon aid in the establishment of the first bacterium?

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    Silicic acid increased numbers of both aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria in ultrapure water incubated under strict oligotrophic conditions; soil extracts acted as the bacterial inoculum. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility that silicic acid, produced by the hydrolysis of silicates on the early Earth, could have stimulated the growth of the first bacterium, thereby allowing it to become established in the then prevailing conditions (presumed to be oligotrophic)

    Some reactions of silicon compounds.

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    The role of mineral phases in the biogas production technology

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    In the field of electric power industry, renewable energy sources, fertilisers, reclamation, and waste management, biomass is widely studied and used. Minerals are present in every step of biogas transformation, but their forms, occurrence, and composition have not been studied yet. However, there is no comprehensive study research that would address the presence of mineral phases in the process of biogas production. This aim of the study is determination of the amount and composition of the mineral phases present in fermentation residues resulting from different production technologies. Digestate mineral composition was analysed using 46 samples from agricultural biogas plants and university testing biogas reactor. The majority of samples contained the amorphous phase. Minority phases consisted of quartz, albite, orthoclase, muscovite, and amphibole. Opal-CT was found in eleven samples (1.26 to 12.1% wt.). The elements present in gas-liquid fluids or in liquids, gases and aerosols within the biogas technology system may create mineral phases, namely the amorphous phase or the crystalline phase under certain conditions. Opal-CT may enter the fermenter as part of plant tissues referred to as phytoliths, or as an unwanted admixture of different origin. It may also originate from the present amorphous SiO2.Web of Science251595

    Bond-order correlation energies for small Si-containing molecules compared with ab initio results from low-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory

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    The present study of small molecules containing silicon has been motivated by (a) the considerable interest being shown currently in the kinetics and reactivity of such molecules, and (b) the biotechnological potential of silicon-derivate surfaces as substrates in the adsorption of, for instance, amino acids and proteins. Therefore, we have studied by (i) a semi-empirical approach and (ii) an ab initio procedure employing low-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, the molecular correlation energies of some neutral closed and open shell silicon-containing molecules in the series SiXnYm. Procedure (i) is shown to have particular merit for the correlation of the ionic members studied in the above series, while the ab initio procedures employed come into their own for neutral species.Comment: Mol. Phys., to be publishe

    Simple high-order Galerkin finite element scheme for the investigation of both guided and leaky modes in axially anisotropic planar waveguides

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    A simple high-order Galerkin finite element scheme is formulated to compute both the guided and leaky modes of anisotropic planar waveguides with diagonal permitivity tensor. Schemes up to 8th-order of accuracy in the effective index are demonstrated

    Modification of kraft wood-pulp fibre with silica for surface functionalisation

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    A new science strategy for natural fibre modification was devised in which glass surface properties would be imparted to wood-derived fibre. The enhancements known from addition of silane reagents to glass fibreÔÇôpolymer composites could therefore be realised for modified cellulose fibreÔÇôpolymer composites. A process is described whereby the internal void spaces and micropores of never-dried Kraft pulp fibre walls were impregnated with silica. This was achieved by initial dehydration of never-dried fibre through azeotropic distillation to achieve substitution of fibre water with the silicon chemical solution over a range of concentrations. Kraft fibres were stiffened and made resistant to collapse from the effect of the azeotrope drying. Specific chemical reaction of azeotrope-dried fibre with the reagent ClSi(OEt)3 followed by base-catalysed hydrolysis of the ester groups formed a fibre-bound silica composite. The physico-chemical substitution of water from micropores and internal voids of never-dried fibre with property-modifying chemicals offers possibilities in the development of new fibre characteristics, including fibres which may be hardened, plasticised, and/or stabilised against moisture, biodegradation or fire. The embedded silica may also be used as sites of attachment for coupling agents to modify the hydrophilic character of the fibre or to functionalise the fibre surface

    Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

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    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes
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