6,580 research outputs found

    Synergistic Interactions of Dynamic Ridesharing and Battery Electric Vehicles Land Use, Transit, and Auto Pricing Policies

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    It is widely recognized that new vehicle and fuel technology is necessary, but not sufficient, to meet deep greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions goals for both the U.S. and the state of California. Demand management strategies (such as land use, transit, and auto pricing) are also needed to reduce passenger vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and related GHG emissions. In this study, the authors explore how demand management strategies may be combined with new vehicle technology (battery electric vehicles or BEVs) and services (dynamic ridesharing) to enhance VMT and GHG reductions. Owning a BEV or using a dynamic ridesharing service may be more feasible when distances to destinations are made shorter and alternative modes of travel are provided by demand management strategies. To examine potential markets, we use the San Francisco Bay Area activity based travel demand model to simulate business-as-usual, transit oriented development, and auto pricing policies with and without high, medium, and low dynamic ridesharing participation rates and BEV daily driving distance ranges. The results of this study suggest that dynamic ridesharing has the potential to significantly reduce VMT and related GHG emissions, which may be greater than land use and transit policies typically included in Sustainable Community Strategies (under California Senate Bill 375), if travelers are willing pay with both time and money to use the dynamic ridesharing system. However, in general, large synergistic effects between ridesharing and transit oriented development or auto pricing policies were not found in this study. The results of the BEV simulations suggest that TODs may increase the market for BEVs by less than 1% in the Bay Area and that auto pricing policies may increase the market by as much as 7%. However, it is possible that larger changes are possible over time in faster growing regions where development is currently at low density levels (for example, the Central Valley in California). The VMT Fee scenarios show larger increases in the potential market for BEV (as much as 7%). Future research should explore the factors associated with higher dynamic ridesharing and BEV use including individual attributes, characteristics of tours and trips, and time and cost benefits. In addition, the travel effects of dynamic ridesharing systems should be simulated explicitly, including auto ownership, mode choice, destination, and extra VMT to pick up a passenger

    The Merits of Sharing a Ride

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    The culture of sharing instead of ownership is sharply increasing in individuals behaviors. Particularly in transportation, concepts of sharing a ride in either carpooling or ridesharing have been recently adopted. An efficient optimization approach to match passengers in real-time is the core of any ridesharing system. In this paper, we model ridesharing as an online matching problem on general graphs such that passengers do not drive private cars and use shared taxis. We propose an optimization algorithm to solve it. The outlined algorithm calculates the optimal waiting time when a passenger arrives. This leads to a matching with minimal overall overheads while maximizing the number of partnerships. To evaluate the behavior of our algorithm, we used NYC taxi real-life data set. Results represent a substantial reduction in overall overheads

    Autonomous Cars, Electric and Hybrid Cars, and Ridesharing: Perceptions vs. Reality

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    Autonomous Cars, Electric and Hybrid Cars, and Ridesharing are all important new technologies in today\u27s society that can have potentially large impacts on the environment in the future. This study was conducted to determine the differences in perceptions of Gettysburg College students regarding Autonomous Cars, Electric and Hybrid Cars, and Ridesharing and the reality of these topics in the real world. This paper also compares the perceptions of Environmental Studies majors/minors to the perceptions of other majors at Gettysburg College. The primary research was conducted by analyzing questions that were a part of a survey consisting of 16 questions which was administered to Gettysburg College students via Facebook class group pages and the Environmental Studies majors email alias. The study group consisted of 110 students with 31 of them being Environmental Studies majors/minors and 79 of them being non-Environmental Studies majors/minors. It was determined that there were no statistically significant differences between the Environmental Studies majors/minors and students that are other majors/minors at Gettysburg College. From our survey, we found that there is a distinct gap in knowledge on the current and future impacts on the environment from Autonomous Cars, Electric and Hybrid Cars, and Ridesharing. The questions that ask which power method produces more greenhouse gas emissions as well as the questions about the miles per gallon of participants’ personal vehicles were the most accurately answered. Overall, Gettysburg College students regardless of major or minor were found to have mostly inaccurate perceptions on the topics of Autonomous Cars, Electric and Hybrid Cars, and Ridesharing

    Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Ride Sharing Organization for Transferable and Non-Transferable Services

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    Ride-sharing allows multiple persons to share their trips together in one vehicle instead of using multiple vehicles. This can reduce the number of vehicles in the street, which consequently can reduce air pollution, traffic congestion and transportation cost. However, a ride-sharing organization requires passengers to report sensitive location information about their trips to a trip organizing server (TOS) which creates a serious privacy issue. In addition, existing ride-sharing schemes are non-flexible, i.e., they require a driver and a rider to have exactly the same trip to share a ride. Moreover, they are non-scalable, i.e., inefficient if applied to large geographic areas. In this paper, we propose two efficient privacy-preserving ride-sharing organization schemes for Non-transferable Ride-sharing Services (NRS) and Transferable Ride-sharing Services (TRS). In the NRS scheme, a rider can share a ride from its source to destination with only one driver whereas, in TRS scheme, a rider can transfer between multiple drivers while en route until he reaches his destination. In both schemes, the ride-sharing area is divided into a number of small geographic areas, called cells, and each cell has a unique identifier. Each driver/rider should encrypt his trip's data and send an encrypted ride-sharing offer/request to the TOS. In NRS scheme, Bloom filters are used to compactly represent the trip information before encryption. Then, the TOS can measure the similarity between the encrypted trips data to organize shared rides without revealing either the users' identities or the location information. In TRS scheme, drivers report their encrypted routes, an then the TOS builds an encrypted directed graph that is passed to a modified version of Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to search for an optimal path of rides that can achieve a set of preferences defined by the riders

    Uber Effort: The Production of Worker Consent in Online Ride Sharing Platforms

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    The rise of the online gig economy alters ways of working. Mediated by algorithmically programmed mobile apps, platforms such as Uber and Lyft allow workers to work by driving and completing rides at any time or in any place that the drivers choose. This hybrid form of labor in an online gig economy which combines independent contract work with computer-mediated work differs from traditional manufacturing jobs in both its production activity and production relations. Through nine interviews with Lyft/Uber drivers, I found that workers’ consent, which was first articulated by Michael Burawoy in the context of the manufacturing economy, is still present in the work of the online gig economy in post-industrial capitalism. Workers willingly engage in the on-demand work not only to earn money but also to play a learning game motivated by the ambiguity of the management system, in which process they earn a sense of self-satisfaction and an illusion of autonomous control. This research points to the important role of technology in shaping contemporary labor process and suggests the potential mechanism which produces workers’ consent in technology-driven workplaces

    A Decomposition Algorithm to Solve the Multi-Hop Peer-to-Peer Ride-Matching Problem

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    In this paper, we mathematically model the multi-hop Peer-to-Peer (P2P) ride-matching problem as a binary program. We formulate this problem as a many-to-many problem in which a rider can travel by transferring between multiple drivers, and a driver can carry multiple riders. We propose a pre-processing procedure to reduce the size of the problem, and devise a decomposition algorithm to solve the original ride-matching problem to optimality by means of solving multiple smaller problems. We conduct extensive numerical experiments to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm and show its practical applicability to reasonably-sized dynamic ride-matching contexts. Finally, in the interest of even lower solution times, we propose heuristic solution methods, and investigate the trade-offs between solution time and accuracy

    Smart City Development with Urban Transfer Learning

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    Nowadays, the smart city development levels of different cities are still unbalanced. For a large number of cities which just started development, the governments will face a critical cold-start problem: 'how to develop a new smart city service with limited data?'. To address this problem, transfer learning can be leveraged to accelerate the smart city development, which we term the urban transfer learning paradigm. This article investigates the common process of urban transfer learning, aiming to provide city planners and relevant practitioners with guidelines on how to apply this novel learning paradigm. Our guidelines include common transfer strategies to take, general steps to follow, and case studies in public safety, transportation management, etc. We also summarize a few research opportunities and expect this article can attract more researchers to study urban transfer learning
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