20,903 research outputs found

    Residential Segregation in Nigerian Cities

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    Residential Segregation and Interracial Marriages

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    Part I highlights recent data on racially segregated neighborhoods and low rates of interracial marriage to underscore what Russell Robinson refers to as “structural constraints” that shape and limit romantic preferences. As I discuss in this Part, many cities today continue to be racially segregated. Notably, current data demonstrate a strong correlation between low rates of interracial marriage and racially segregated neighborhoods in those cities. By contrast, contemporary studies indicate that in cities where communities are more racially and economically integrated, the rate of interracial marriages is high. Part II argues that the association between high rates of segregation and low rates of interracial marriages should prompt an exploration of factors that facilitate and perpetuate residential segregation. It also calls for an examination of ways to dismantle these contemporary barriers to the establishment of racially integrated neighborhoods and communities. Part II.A focuses on the ways that some cities are seeking to address residential segregation and housing discrimination in their jurisdictions. Part II.B considers private endeavors that policy makers ought to also consider in seeking to better integrate certain neighborhoods. Specifically, this Part discusses real estate developer James Rouse’s integrated planned community of Columbia, Maryland, which he established in 1967. Rouse’s attempt to integrate through private social engineering of American neighborhoods and cities offers important lessons for those who are invested today in creating conditions for diverse families to flourish

    Residential Segregation in General Equilibrium

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    This paper studies the causes and consequences of racial segregation using a new general equilibrium model that treats neighborhood compositions as endogenous. The model is estimated using unusually detailed restricted Census microdata covering the entire San Francisco Bay Area, and in combination with a rich array of econometric estimates, serves as a powerful tool for carrying out counterfactual simulations that shed light on the causes and consequences of segregation. In terms of causes, and contrasting with prior research, our GE simulations indicate that equalizing income and education across race would be unlikely to result in significant reductions in racial segregation, as minority households would sort into newly formed minority neighborhoods. Indeed, among Asian and Hispanic households, segregation increases. In terms of consequences, this paper provides the first evidence that sorting on the basis of race gives rise to significant reductions in the consumption of local public goods by minority households and upper-income minority households in particular. These consumption effects are likely to have important intergenerational implications.Segregation, General Equilibrium, Endogenous Sorting, Urban Housing Market, Locational Equilibrium, Counterfactual Simulation, Discrete Choice

    Residential Segregation

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    This study explores the influences of socioeconomic factors on residential integration. Data was collected through an internet questionnaire and respondents were gathered by snowball technique. Residential integration is measured by the percentage of White individuals living in the respondent's specific ZIP Code based off information from the U.S. Census Bureau. The author proposes that an increase in socioeconomic status will lead to an increase in residential integration. Despite having mixed results, a significant positive correlation was found between one's level of education and residential integration, supporting a part of the author's original hypothesis

    Integration as a Means of Restoring Democracy and Opportunity

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    This paper was originally presented at A Shared Future: Fostering Communities of Inclusion in an Era of Inequality, a national symposium hosted by the Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies in April 2017. The symposium examined how patterns of residential segregation by income and race in the United States are changing and the consequences of residential segregation for individuals and society, and sought to identify the most promising strategies for fostering more inclusive communities in the years to come. This paper was presented as part of Panel 1 at the symposium, entitled “Defining Objectives and the Rationale for Action.

    Residential Segregation, Neighborhood Social and Physical Context in Obesity Disparities in Hispanic Preschoolers: A Conceptual Model

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    During the last decade, there has been a significant inclusion in obesity prevention studies from individual characteristics to household factors then neighborhood factors. The study of place in the context of early childhood obesity studies has been limited to the food and physical built environment. With the persistent disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity, and Hispanic minorities being increasingly affected, there is a need to reexamine existing models and develop new model conceptual frameworks to examine the role of place and residential segregation in the context of race, ethnicity, social position, and socioeconomic disparities. In the context of place as a relational space linked to where young children live, play and learn, this paper conceptualizes the role of the neighborhood social and physical factors as well as organizational, household and/or individual factors as mediators of the correlation between residential segregation and obesity in Hispanic preschoolers. In the model, we also attempted to include the role of policies and programs in moderating the negative effects of racial residential segregation and resource inequalities and their interactions with the multiple factors that may contribute to childhood obesity. Recommendations for future research need are identified

    Residential Segregation and Social Integration: Do Blacks and Whites Differ?

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    While it is well known that racial residential segregation affects social behaviors and various outcomes of individuals, research about the relationship between residential segregation and social integration is limited. We examine how residential segregation is associated with three types of social integration: formal, informal, and advisory integration, and whether the associations differ for Blacks and Whites using data from the Americans’ Changing Lives survey. Our results show that residential segregation is negatively associated with advisory integration for both Blacks and Whites. It also predicts lower levels of formal integration for Blacks, but not for Whites. We did not find significant relationships between residential segregation and informal integration. Interestingly, the sizable associations between residential segregation and formal and advisory integration remain significant even after controlling for the prevalence of Blacks and poverty in counties. It suggests that the racial distribution is a substantial determinant of social relationships especially for Blacks

    Framework of the Existing Patterns of Residential Segregation and Housing Quality in Nigeria

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    Residential segregation, the spatial separation of population sub-groups within a given geographical area, is a phenomenon which is prevalent in both developed and developing countries like Nigeria. This study sought to contribute to existing knowledge by reviewing the existing patterns of residential segregation and housing quality in Nigeria, and developing a framework for the existing patterns of residential segregation and housing quality. The study established that the existing residential segregation patterns are based mainly on religion, ethnicity, age and income; and the factors responsible for residential segregation in the study area are individual and aggregate socioeconomic characteristics, individual preference/taste/choice of neighbourhood and political/institutional factors. While the indicators of housing quality in the study area are building design, type of roofing and wall materials, condition and age of buildings, the type of internal facilities and the source of lighting. And the framework showed that there is a relationship between the factors responsible for residential segregation and housing quality in the study area. Keywords: Framework, Patterns, Residential Segregation, Housing Quality, Bauch

    A review of residential segregation and its consequences in Nigeria

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    Residential segregation, the spatial separation of population sub-groups within a given geographical area, is a phenomenon which is prevalent in both developed and developing countries like Nigeria. This paper is aimed at reviewing residential segregation in Nigeria with specific reference to Northern Nigeria. The objectives of the paper are to review residential segregation from the pre-colonial to post-colonial era, and review its consequences in Nigeria. Prior to the colonial administration in Nigeria there existed no residential segregation based on race, ethnic or religious lines. The divide and rule policy of the British colonial administrators in Nigeria brought about residential segregation through the creation of ‘Sabon Gari’ settlements, which are occupied by the non-natives of Northern Nigeria. Residential segregation in Nigeria was reviewed in phases, that is, during the pre-colonial, colonial and the post-colonial era. In the final section of the paper the consequences of residential segregation in Nigeria, such as the socio-spatial division of households by income (high, medium and low density), inaccessibility of the poor to affordable housing, inadequate provision of infrastructure in the high density residential areas, and most importantly the cause of ethno-religious conflicts in across Nigeria, was discussed

    A Measure of Segregation Based on Social Interactions

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    We develop an index of segregation based on two premises: (1) a measure of segregation should disaggregate to the level of individuals, and (2) an individual is more segregated the more segregated are the agents with whom she interacts. We present an index that satisfies (1) and (2) and that is based on agents' social interactions: the extent to which blacks interact with blacks, whites with whites, etc. We use the index to measure school and residential segregation. Using detailed data on friendship networks, we calculate levels of within-school racial segregation in a sample of U. S. schools. We also calculate residential segregation across major U. S. cities, using block-level data from the 2000 U. S. Census
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