238,355 research outputs found

    Integration and onward migration of refugees in Scotland: preliminary evidence from the SUNRISE database

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    Despite the operation of UK dispersal policy for nearly a decade, there has been little examination of the resulting impacts upon refugee mobility and integration. Implemented under the 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act, the rationale behind UK dispersal was to 'spread the burden' (Robinson et al. 2003). The housing of asylum seekers to various locations across the UK was employed to discourage settlement in the South East (and particularly London) and distribute costs amongst UK local authorities. The main aim was to relieve housing and social pressures in South East England, where the majority of new arrivals spontaneously concentrated. By instituting a policy of compulsory dispersal, UK asylum policy has removed an asylum seeker's freedom to choose where to settle. This means that since 2000, the UK Home Office has implemented a policy of dispersal whereby asylum seekers are housed on a no choice basis to locations around the country. Asylum seekers in the UK are housed in various locations in England, Scotland and Wales. At the end of December 2006, the top three dispersal towns in England were Leeds, Birmingham and Manchester (Bennett et al. 2007). All asylum seekers fully supported by NASS and dispersed to Scotland are located in Glasgow City (5,010). In Glasgow, housing is provided for asylum seekers by Glasgow City Council as well as the YMCA. A small number of asylum seekers are located in Edinburgh (75) and supported on a subsistence only basis. In Scotland, and indeed within the UK as a whole, the largest concentration of asylum seekers is housed within Glasgow. Furthermore, there are an estimated 10,000 refugees and asylum seekers in Scotland which represent over 50 different nationalities (Charlaff et al. 2004). As a result the discussion focuses upon this local case study. Dispersal policy is one key element of UK asylum policy that determines the geographical distribution of asylum seekers across the country. But nearly a decade since the UK Home Office implemented dispersal policy, knowledge gaps still remain in understanding the onward migration decisions of refugees. Despite the clear aim of dispersal to determine local and national movements of asylum seekers, there has been surprisingly little attention paid to the role played by current UK dispersal policy in onward migration and integration. Policy driven research has tended to focus upon international and national issues to the exclusion of micro level processes (Bowes et al. 2009). Indeed, the majority of literature on dispersal has focused upon critiquing the policy for being driven by void housing and concentrating vulnerable populations in deprived, inner city neighbourhoods. With attention clearly focused upon critiquing dispersal policy, the potential long-term implications for refugee integration have been under-researched. The aim of this paper is to reassert the importance of considering mobility issues in refugee integration research. The current UK asylum policy environment is considered before attention turns to the theoretical developments in understanding refugee integration. Empirical evidence is presented from the Scottish Refugee Council's SUNRISE (Strategic Upgrade of National Refugee Integration Services programme) database to identify the geography of onward migration flows as well as the diversity of individuals engaged in movement around the UK during the asylum process as well as after being granted or refused status. The empirical material is employed to provoke questions of how onward migration may be linked to refugee integration. This includes considering factors which predispose individuals to migrate and how this may usefully provide insights into the process of refugee integration

    a collaboration among refugee newcomers, migrants, activists and anthropologists in Berlin

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    In 2015, Germany entered what would later become known as the ‘refugee crisis’. The Willkommenskultur (welcoming culture) trope gained political prominence and met with signifi cant challenges. In this article, we focus on a series of encounters in Berlin, bringing together refugee newcomers, migrants, activists and anthropologists. As we thought and wrote together about shared experiences, we discovered the limitations of the normative assumptions of refugee work. One aim of this article is to destabilise terms such as refugee, refugee work, success and failure with our engagements in the aftermath of the ‘crisis’. Refugee work is not exclusively humanitarian aid directed towards the alleviation of suff ering but includes being and doing together. Through productive failures and emergent lessons, the collaboration enhanced our understandings of social categories and the role of anthropology

    Use of the Pyramid Model for Supporting Preschool Refugees

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    Response to Intervention (RtI) is being applied to early childhood settings for the support of positive behavior and social development through the Pyramid Model (Fox, Carta, Strain, Dunlap & Hemmeter, 2010). This qualitative study assessed the use of the Pyramid Model for preschool aged refugee children living in a refugee resettlement community. Many young refugee children have experienced trauma (George, 2010) and some experience behavior and social challenges (Almqvist & Brandell-Forsberg, 1997). Twenty-five preschool service providers were interviewed about their use of the Pyramid Model for the support of preschool refugee students. Themes to be shared include how ECEs are implementing the practices outlined in the Pyramid Model along with strategies for adapting recommended practices to meet the needs of refugee families

    Between law and the nation state:Novel representations of the refugee

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    Given the degraded profile of the refugee in contemporary discourse, it is tempting to seek alternatives from a rich tradition of literary tropes of exile. However, this article argues that the romanticized figure of the literary exile ends up denying, albeit in positive terms, a genuine refugee voice, as much as the current impersonal hegemonic concept of the refugee as found in law. Ultimately, the spell in which refugees find themselves trapped today can be broken only by opening up a space of politics in which the refugee herself can be heard

    Workshop onReview of Rejected Refugee Claims

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    On September 18 ,1992 the Refugee Law Research Unit of the Centre for Refugee Studies (CRS), Amnesty International and Vigil sponsored a workshop to review the process for the Review of Rejected Refugee Claims. The following is an account of the discussion at this workshop and reflects the efforts of concerned parties to understand the history and current state of affairs in the review of rejected refugee claims

    Displaced, excluded, moving on: a study of refugee entrepreneurship in Kenya

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    The global refugee crisis has grown in scale over the last 30 years. There are currently 25.4million refugees worldwide of whom 85 percent reside in developing countries (UNHCR, 2019). As a result of the protracted violence and instability in the East African region, Kenya has been on the frontier of receiving refugees and asylum seekers since the 1970s. However, the official approach of the Kenyan government has been to enact a unique encampment policy that has effectively stripped the refugee community of the right to free movement and employment across the country. Most refugees are restricted to camps located in predominantly arid and semi-arid areas that have often been subjected to socio-political marginalisation (Campbell et al, 2011). In effect, these refugees are denied the opportunity to contribute to the economy of the host country by using their entrepreneurial skills and resources to create value and enhance national productivity. In the same vein, the imposed restrictions make it difficult for the refugee households to support themselves, raise household income, and forge a path to long term resettlement or return. However, in spite of these constraints, the refugees are employing new strategies to overcome institutional and infrastructural barriers and challenges. This paper therefore presents a study of refugee entrepreneurs within Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. We examine the role of social capital- in its bonding, bridging and linking forms. We draw from in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, supplemented with archival documents and policy papers, to review existing policies and interrogate the models of refugee entrepreneurship in Kenya. We also examine the link between refugee resilience, self-reliance and ingenuity on the one hand, and entrepreneurial success and livelihood recovery on the other hand. We then propose a conceptual framework that highlights the role of social capital in overcoming institutional and infrastructural constraints to entrepreneurship among refugee populations

    From Identification to Durable Solution: Analysis of the Resettlement of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors to the United States and Recommendations for Best Interest Determinations

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    Internationally, not much is known about unaccompanied refugee children who are identified for third country resettlement and who they are as a group. As the largest resettlement country, the United States resettles more unaccompanied children than any other nation and much can be learned from this group of children's cases. Sharing this information with the international community could inform policies and programs related to the identification of displaced children in need of durable solutions.This USCCB/MRS staff report is intended to assist with educating the international audience about the population of unaccompanied refugee minors identified for refugee resettlement to the United States. It builds upon and compares results from a previous USCCB report. Drawing upon our professional experience with best interest assessments and determinations for unaccompanied/separated children, we also include in this report concrete suggestions regarding best interest determinations in refugee settings. Our hope is that sharing this information will be a helpful tool for those in the international community who are charged with or have the capacity to provide a voice of protection for vulnerable refugee children.For refugee minors unable to resettle with family members or other appropriate caregivers, the United States Refugee Program provides specialized foster care services through the Unaccompanied Refugee Minor (URM) program network. The URM programs are designed to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate foster care and supportive services to refugee children and youth. They originated in the 1980s in response to the needs of unaccompanied refugee children arriving from Southeast Asia; since then, the programs have received almost 13,000 children from countries all over the world. Placement into the URM programs is offered by two national voluntary agencies: Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Services (LIRS) and the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops/Migration and Refugee Services (USCCB/MRS), both of which receive approximately equal numbers of URMs each year.The majority of unaccompanied refugee minors who enter the URM programs are identified overseas by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) staff, nongovernmental organizations and others. Currently most children who are referred for resettlement into a URM program have had their needs evaluated through a process called a Best Interest Determination (BID). The UNHCR Guidelines on Determining the Best Interests of the Child (2008) states that, "Resettlement to a country other than that of the parents can be in the best interest of the child, if family reunification is neither possible in the place of residence of the parents (for instance, due to safety considerations) nor in the country of asylum, and the child faces serious protection risks which cannot be addressed in the environment of the country of asylum." Often a BID is conducted in an effort to identify a durable solution -- including voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement -- for the child.When a child is referred to USCCB or LIRS for resettlement, a BID is included in the referral documentation. These BIDS are invaluable in understanding the child's history and in making decisions about the best placement option in the U.S. for the child.In 2010, the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) conducted an evaluation of Best Interest Determinations for most of the unaccompanied refugee minors who were resettled by USCCB between October 1, 2007 and March 31, 2009. Among the recommendations in that report was the need for greater efforts to identify children in urban settings, the need to conduct BIDs promptly and to be alert to the possibility of trafficking in refugee settings. This report looks at the BIDs and other pre-arrival case information for all of the URMs resettled by USCCB from January 2010 through March 2011. We found some changes from the last report and some areas where we believe there is room for improvement

    Beyond Crisis Management: The Path Towards an Effective, Pro-active and Fair European Refugee Policy. Bertelsmann Study

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    Europe urgently needs an effective, pro-active and fair refugee policy. Short-sighted policy-making and a narrow focus on what seemed to be in the immediate national interests have led to a conglomerate of European refugee policies. These policies are clearly ineffective and resulted in a large and partially uncontrolled refugee movement to and within Europe in 2015. Refugee flows to Europe are unlikely to subside soon, as many conflicts persist and the average duration of protracted refugee situations worldwide is on the rise. In a reaction to these circumstances, the European Com-mission has proposed a number of initiatives to reform the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). Consensus is more likely on the introduction of restrictions and sanctions rather than, for example, fair distribution systems or pooling sovereignty on the EU level by establishing a strong EU Agency of Asylum. Yet, especially pro-active solutions that meet Europe’s humanitarian responsi-bilities are necessary. The paper puts forward policy-recommendations for a paradigm-shift from reactive to pro-active refugee policies. The overarching objective is to create further legal channels for refugees to seek protection in Europe. Measures include both national and EU-policies and are supposed to pave the way to a sustainable and coherent European refugee policy. The policy recommendations are clus-tered in five overarching themes: create safe passages to protection, improve national asylum processing and integration systems, establish further legal pathways for mixed migration, enable protection in the region of origin, and tackle the root causes of forced migration through a sustainable foreign, economic and trade policy. Finally, it has to be stressed that only if we can restore Europe’s political will to manage refugee flows together, there will be sustainable solutions in sight. Regular dialogue taking into account the different resources and histories of the countries are the way forward. If member states can incrementally alight their different national policies, a comprehensive European refugee policy may follow. Given the current political differences amongst member states, this will be a lengthy process – but certainly worth the effort

    Danish Refugee Council 2010 Annual Report

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    In the international area, we help displaced people with identification papers and papers documenting their right of ownership, etc. In this way, DRC advocates the cause of displaced people applying a rights-based approach. Advocacy can be complicated and may affect our programme activities. We live in a globalised world, and therefore, what we say in Denmark will be heard far and wide. A couple of years ago, DRC was critical of the forced return of Tamil asylum seekers at a time when the war was at its highest, which was why we were concerned about the fate of the Tamil asylum seekers who were forced to return. Our criticism was communicated to a national Danish newspaper which the authorities in Sri Lanka read, and they did not like our critical comments. Our local country director was summoned for meetings, and the matter was explained. This demonstrates that our communication and advocacy are subject to new requirements in a world where news, statements and information circulate freely and fast. Humanitarian report Today, we can say that we help more than one million displaced people all over the world; however, it is more complicated to give a brief and clear account of our accomplishments for the individual displaced person and his or her community. What is the effect of our work – measured on a number of indicators that specifically show how we made a difference – e.g. how many children have been given the opportunity to go to school, or how many families have been able to return home and resume the cultivation of cleared land. We are working on preparing a humanitarian report that better shows the effect of our humanitarian aid. In the future, DRC’s humanitarian report will be presented separately from the annual report. Improved efficiency In a period of strong growth, we must be particularly careful about improving efficiency in the organisation. It is important for two reasons: Firstly, we must always be conscious of how we spend our resources that are first and foremost for the benefit of displaced people. Secondly, it is our obligation to private donors as well as to donors providing tax-funded donations. We therefore continuously aim at improving efficiency, and we expect that we will be able to maintain a high degree of cost awareness in the entire organisation. In the following, the reader will get an understanding of DRC’s multi-faceted activities during 2010. We are proud of the work carried out by our many employees

    Refugee status and religious conversion: The significance of refugee appeal number 76204

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    Doug Tennent from Waikato University considers the effect of adverse findings of credibility in a refugee claim involving religious conversion and cautions the need for support agencies to act with care when assisting people with refugee determination
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