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    Universal geometric cluster algebras

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    We consider, for each exchange matrix B, a category of geometric cluster algebras over B and coefficient specializations between the cluster algebras. The category also depends on an underlying ring R, usually the integers, rationals, or reals. We broaden the definition of geometric cluster algebras slightly over the usual definition and adjust the definition of coefficient specializations accordingly. If the broader category admits a universal object, the universal object is called the cluster algebra over B with universal geometric coefficients, or the universal geometric cluster algebra over B. Constructing universal coefficients is equivalent to finding an R-basis for B (a "mutation-linear" analog of the usual linear-algebraic notion of a basis). Polyhedral geometry plays a key role, through the mutation fan F_B, which we suspect to be an important object beyond its role in constructing universal geometric coefficients. We make the connection between F_B and g-vectors. We construct universal geometric coefficients in rank 2 and in finite type and discuss the construction in affine type.Comment: Final version to appear in Math. Z. 49 pages, 5 figure

    Cambrian Lattices

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    For an arbitrary finite Coxeter group W we define the family of Cambrian lattices for W as quotients of the weak order on W with respect to certain lattice congruences. We associate to each Cambrian lattice a complete fan, which we conjecture is the normal fan of a polytope combinatorially isomorphic to the generalized associahedron for W. In types A and B we obtain, by means of a fiber-polytope construction, combinatorial realizations of the Cambrian lattices in terms of triangulations and in terms of permutations. Using this combinatorial information, we prove in types A and B that the Cambrian fans are combinatorially isomorphic to the normal fans of the generalized associahedra and that one of the Cambrian fans is linearly isomorphic to Fomin and Zelevinsky's construction of the normal fan as a "cluster fan." Our construction does not require a crystallographic Coxeter group and therefore suggests a definition, at least on the level of cellular spheres, of a generalized associahedron for any finite Coxeter group. The Tamari lattice is one of the Cambrian lattices of type A, and two "Tamari" lattices in type B are identified and characterized in terms of signed pattern avoidance. We also show that open intervals in Cambrian lattices are either contractible or homotopy equivalent to spheres.Comment: Revisions in exposition (partly in response to the suggestions of an anonymous referee) including many new figures. Also, Conjecture 1.4 and Theorem 1.5 are replaced by slightly more detailed statements. To appear in Adv. Math. 37 pages, 8 figure

    Hong Kong – The new offence of fraud

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    Letter from Hong Kong by John Reading SC (Senior Assistant Director of Public Prosecutions, Commercial Crime Unit, Department of Justice, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region) describing how Hong Kong’s legislature enacted a statutory offence of fraud by inserting a new section (16A) in the Theft Ordinance. Jean reading prosecutes fraud and corruption cases and is a Senior Counsel. Published in the Letter from … section of Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London