691 research outputs found

    COVID-19 case surveillance public use data with geography

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    Updated March 23, 2021Data Provided by CDC Case Surveillance Task ForceThis case surveillance public use dataset has 19 elements for all COVID-19 cases shared with CDC and includes demographics, geography (county and state of residence), any exposure history, disease severity indicators and outcomes, and presence of any underlying medical conditions and risk behaviors.Currently, CDC provides the public with three versions of COVID-19 case surveillance line-listed data: this 19 data element dataset with geography, a 12 data element public use dataset, and a 32 data element restricted access dataset.2021936

    COVID-19 case surveillance public use data

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    Updated November 24, 2020Data Provided by CDC Case Surveillance Task ForceCurrently, CDC provides the public with COVID-19 case surveillance data in two ways: an 11 data element public use dataset of the line-listed dataset of all COVID-19 cases shared with CDC and a 31 data element restricted access dataset of the line-listed dataset of all COVID-19 cases shared with CDC.2020E:\cpapFiles\WebServer\COVID-19-Case-Surveillance-Public-Use-Data2020nov24.pdfhttps://data.cdc.gov/Case-Surveillance/COVID-19-Case-Surveillance-Public-Use-Data/vbim-akqf873

    "Immigrant Parents' Attributes versus Discrimination: New Evidence in the Debate about the Creation of Second Generation Educational Outcomes in Israel"

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    There is much interest in explaining the persistent ethnic gaps in education among Israeli Jews; specifically, the much lower attainments of those from Asian and African countries compared to the rest—Mizrahim vs. Ashkenazim, respectively. Some explanations (especially early ones) have stressed premigration immigrant characteristics, particularly the relatively lower level of educational attainment among Mizrahim. More recent interpretations have tended to focus on discrimination of various sorts that took place after the immigrants arrived in Israel. Crucial evidence for the discriminatory effect was introduced by Yaakov Nahon (1987), who demonstrated a shift toward a Mizrahi-Ashkenazi dichotomy in educational attainment between birth cohorts of adult immigrants and birth cohorts of adults born in Israel. From this evidence, a wide range of scholars concluded that the premigration educational characteristics of immigrants could not explain Israeli educational patterns, and that, consequently, the explanation based on discrimination was thereby greatly strengthened. In this paper, we use the 1961 Israel census public-use dataset to refine Nahon's analysis. Instead of using age cohorts as proxies for "fathers" and "children," we focus on actual fathers and their children. Our results vary substantially from Nahon's. In fact, we find that the educational attainment of immigrant fathers clusters quite closely around the Ashkenazi-Mizrahi dichotomy, and conclude that it is no longer reasonable to rule out the premigration hypothesis. This outcome leaves researchers with a more challenging explanatory task than before, because they are now faced with the notoriously difficult situation of having to determine the relative influence of premigration characteristics, on the one hand, and of discriminatory processes, on the other.Education; Immigration; Ethnicity; Mobility

    NSFB 101: Getting Started with the National Survey of Fertility Barriers

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    The NSFB research team presented the National Survey of Fertility Barriers (NSFB) Data Users’ Workshop at the Population Association of America (PAA) annual meeting in Dallas, Texas, on April 17, 2010. This workshop provided an opportunity to explore wave 1 of the nationally representative NSFB public-use dataset and to learn how the data can be used to answer various research questions related to (sub, in)fecundity, fecundity intentions and pathways, fertility outcomes, and the psychosocial dynamics that operate between fecundity and fertility. Why did we do a population based, longitudinal, telephone study of fertility/infertility that includes partners? It was the most efficient way to answer compelling questions Greil’s (1997) critical review of past research on the social psychological impact of infertility showed the need for new data

    Unobserved Factors Linking Functional Decline and Depression Among the Oldest Americans

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    This study considers the dependence between functional decline and depression in a nationally representative sample of older Americans from the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) covering the years from 1993 to 2002. Previous research has shown that depression is a significant predictor of functional decline and, conversely, functional limitations lead to more depressive symptoms. While this cross-dependence is an established fact in the literature, relatively few prior papers formally modeled the association between functional decline and depression. In this paper, functional decline is defined as 2 or more limitations in 5 Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and 2 or more limitations in 5 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) from the baseline to the last available follow-up interview. Depression is defined as 3 or more points on the 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale over the same range of time. In the analytic sample of 5,470 oldest Americans, each of the three measures is initially estimated in the univariate probit model controlling for a rich set of available risk factors identified in the previous studies. Then it is argued that univariate probit models are incapable of capturing individual differences (for example, predisposition to both physical and emotional ill health) that may link functional decline and depression in the oldest Americans. Thus, a more advanced multivariate probit model is employed, and three discrete equations are estimated jointly. In this way, unmeasured factors specific to the individual will become part of the error terms, and statistically significant correlations in the variance matrix will indicate dependence between functional decline and depression. Estimation of multivariate probit model reveals substantial unobserved heterogeneity in the dynamics of ADLs, IADLs, and CES-D score over time. Thus, previous results based on univariate methods should be interpreted with caution.Multivariate probit, Activities of Daily Living, Depression, Older Adults

    Characteristics of New Firms: A Comparison by Gender

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    Based on data from the Kauffman Firm Survey, compares characteristics of the owner, type of business, industry, financing, size, and performance of new firms owned by women and by men. Considers the factors behind women-owned firms' underperformance

    A Longitudinal Analysis of Cars, Transit, and Employment Outcomes

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    Access to cars and transit can influence individuals’ ability to reach opportunities such as jobs, health care, and other important activities. While access to cars and public transit varies considerably across time, space, and across populations, most research portrays car access as a snapshot in time; some people have a car and others do not. But does this snapshot approach mask variation in car ownership over time? And how does access to particular types of transportation resources influence individuals’ economic outcomes? The authors improve upon existing research by using panel data from 1999 to 2013 from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to examine levels of automobile access in groups that have variable access: poor families, immigrants, and people of color. They further employ two new national datasets of access to jobs using public transit. These datasets are used to examine the effect of transit and automobile access on income growth over time within families, controlling for a number of relevant variables. The research found that for most families, being “carless” is a temporary condition. While 13% of families in the US are carless in any given year, only 5% of families are carless for all seven waves of data examined in the analysis. The research also found that poor families, immigrants, and people of color (particularly blacks) are considerably more likely to transition into and out car owner-ship frequently and are less likely to have a car in any survey year than are non-poor families, the US-born, and whites. The research also found that improving automobile access is associated with a decreased probability of future unemployment and is associated with greater income gains. However, the analysis suggests that the costs of owning and maintaining a car may be greater than the income gains associated with in-creased car ownership. The relationship between public transit and improved economic outcomes is less clear. The research found that living in areas with access to high-quality public transportation has no relationship with future earnings. However, transit serves an important purpose in providing mobility for those who cannot or choose not to own a car
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