2,657,605 research outputs found

    Is Good Enough Good Enough For Swarthmore?

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    Positive Aging: Resilience And Reconstruction

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    From a social constructionist perspective, conceptions of aging emerge from participation in relationships. Thus, there is reason to counter the Western stereotype of aging as decline with a more robust and positive vision. In the same way, resilience in everyday life may be achieved by engaging creatively and collaboratively in coordinating the flow of circumstances and interpretations making up daily life. We illustrate the potentials of resilience in terms of collaborative attempts to generate positive reconstructions of what are often defined as debilitating circumstances: reduced income, diminished attractiveness in physical appearance, declining physical and mental abilities, physical handicaps, the “empty nest,” the loss of loved ones and approaching death. As we propose, sustaining a resilient orientation requires continuous improvization, as one\u27s life conditions continue to change. By drawing on the resources accumulated over a lifetime, and collaborating with one\u27s contemporaries, culturally defined losses may be reconstructed and a positive confluence re-established. As we look back at our lives, we both agree that when we were in our twenties and thirties, we had not looked forward to “growing old.” We never wanted to be identified as “old folks” and we did not look forward to “retiring.” Later we viewed with some distress the emergence of wrinkles and gray hair, and we hoped that every forgotten name was not a sign of dementia. It was not so much the signaling of oncoming death that was important in our age anxiety

    Visual Adaptation

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    A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy—Adolescent Skills Training To Group Counseling In Schools

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    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset

    Controlled Interaction: Strategies For Using Virtual Reality To Study Perception

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    Immersive virtual reality systems employing head-mounted displays offer great promise for the investigation of perception and action, but there are well-documented limitations to most virtual reality systems. In the present article, we suggest strategies for studying perception/action interactions that try to depend on both scale-invariant metrics (such as power function exponents) and careful consideration of the requirements of the interactions under investigation. New data concerning the effect of pincushion distortion on the perception of surface orientation are presented, as well as data documenting the perception of dynamic distortions associated with head movements with uncorrected optics. A review of several successful uses of virtual reality to study the interaction of perception and action emphasizes scale-free analysis strategies that can achieve theoretical goals while minimizing assumptions about the accuracy of virtual simulations

    Visual Learning In The Perception Of Texture: Simple And Contingent Aftereffects Of Texture Density

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    Novel results elucidating the magnitude, binocularity and retinotopicity of aftereffects of visual texture density adaptation are reported as is a new contingent aftereffect of texture density which suggests that the perception of visual texture density is quite malleable. Texture aftereffects contingent upon orientation, color and temporal sequence are discussed. A fourth effect is demonstrated in which auditory contingencies are shown to produce a different kind of visual distortion. The merits and limitations of error-correction and classical conditioning theories of contingent adaptation are reviewed. It is argued that a third kind of theory which emphasizes coding efficiency and informational considerations merits close attention. It is proposed that malleability in the registration of texture information can be understood as part of the functional adaptability of perception

    The Challenge Of Absent Presence

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    “Let your home know where your heart is.” (Billboard advertisement for cellular phone) The setting is a retirement home for the elderly. Wilfred enters the veranda in search of two close friends. He is in luck, they are both present. But alas, one is lost to her Walkman and the other is engrossed in his book. Neither notices Wilfred\u27s presence. Frustrated, Wilfred is left to stare silently into space. Such is the beginning of Ronald Harwood\u27s London play, Quartet. Young or old, we instantly identify with the scene. How often do we enter a room to find family, friends or colleagues absorbed by their computer screen, television, CDs, telephone, newspaper, or even a book? Perhaps they welcome us without hesitation; but sometimes there is a pause, accompanied even by a look of slight irritation. And at times our presence may go completely unacknowledged. We are present but simultaneously rendered absent; we have been erased by an absent presence. It is the twentieth-century expansion of absent presence that I wish to explore in what follows. My concern is with the growing domain of diverted or divided consciousness invited by communication technology, and most particularly the mobile telephone. One is physically present but is absorbed by a technologically mediated world of elsewhere. Typically it is a world of relationships, both active and vicarious, within which domains of meaning are being created or sustained

    New Issues In The Study Of Infant Categorization: A Reply To Husaim And Cohen

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    Husaim and Cohen\u27s focus (Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1981, 27, 443–456) on the learning of ill-defined categories by infants is securely motivated. Still, some of the particular questions they pursue—namely, how many dimensions are used to form the categories and what is the salience hierarchy of the dimensions—are tricky and perhaps misleading. Underlying their design and analysis is the basic assumption that the dimensions or attributes of the stimulus as defined by the experimenter have psychological reality for the infants. This assumption is questioned. Infants may perceive different attributes in the stimulus or they may not articulate the stimulus into attributes at all

    Visuomotor Adaptation Without Vision?

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    In 1995, an aftereffect following treadmill running was described, in which people would inadvertently advance when attempting to run in place on solid ground with their eyes closed. Although originally induced from treadmill running, the running-in-place aftereffect is argued here to result from the absence of sensory information specifying advancement during running. In a series of experiments in which visual information was systematically manipulated, aftereffect strength (AE), measured as the proportional increase (post-test/pre-test) in forward drift while attempting to run in place with eyes closed, was found to be inversely related to the amount of geometrically correct optical flow provided during induction. In particular, experiment 1 (n=20) demonstrated that the same aftereffect was not limited to treadmill running, but could also be strongly generated by running behind a golf-cart when the eyes were closed (AE=1.93), but not when the eyes were open (AE=1.16). Conversely, experiment 2 (n=39) showed that simulating an expanding flow field, albeit crudely, during treadmill running was insufficient to eliminate the aftereffect. Reducing ambient auditory information by means of earplugs increased the total distances inadvertently advanced while attempting to run in one place by a factor of two, both before and after adaptation, but did not influence the ratio of change produced by adaptation. It is concluded that the running-in-place aftereffect may result from a recalibration of visuomotor control systems that takes place even in the absence of visual input
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