29,550 research outputs found

    Preclinical models for obesity research

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    Acknowledgements The authors are funded by the Scottish Government, Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division, Strategic Research Programme, ‘Food, Health and Wellbeing’ Theme. P.B. also acknowledges funding from Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC; BB/M001504/1), J.G.M. from the European Union (EU)-funded Full4Health project (grant agreement no. 266408; Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013]), and P.J.M. from BBSRC (BB/G014272/1).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Preclinical Models of Visceral Sarcomas

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    Visceral sarcomas are a rare malignant subgroup of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). STSs, accounting for 1% of all adult tumors, are derived from mesenchymal tissues and exhibit a wide heterogeneity. Their rarity and the high number of histotypes hinder the understanding of tumor development mechanisms and negatively influence clinical outcomes and treatment approaches. Although some STSs (~20%) have identifiable genetic markers, as specific mutations or translocations, most are characterized by complex genomic profiles. Thus, identification of new therapeutic targets and development of personalized therapies are urgent clinical needs. Although cell lines are useful for preclinical investigations, more reliable preclinical models are required to develop and test new potential therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the available in vitro and in vivo models of visceral sarcomas, whose gene signatures are still not well characterized, to highlight current challenges and provide insights for future studies

    Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Efficacy of Intravitreal Digoxin in Preclinical Models for Retinoblastoma

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    PURPOSE:To assess in vitro cytotoxic activity and antiangiogenic effect, ocular and systemic disposition, and toxicity of digoxin in rabbits after intravitreal injection as a potential candidate for retinoblastoma treatment.METHODS:A panel of two retinoblastoma and three endothelial cell types were exposed to increasing concentrations of digoxin in a conventional (72-hour exposure) and metronomic (daily exposure) treatment scheme. Cytotoxicity was defined as the digoxin concentration that killed 50% of the cells (IC50) and was assessed with a vital dye in all cell types. Induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle status were evaluated by flow cytometry after both treatment schemes. Ocular and systemic disposition after intravitreal injection as well as toxicity was assessed in rabbits. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded before and after digoxin doses and histopathological examinations were performed after enucleation.RESULTS:Digoxin was cytotoxic to retinoblastoma and endothelial cells under conventional and metronomic treatment. IC50 was comparable between both schedules and induced apoptosis in all cell lines. Calculated vitreous digoxin Cmax was 8.5 μg/mL and the levels remained above the IC50 for at least 24 hours after intravitreal injection. Plasma digoxin concentration was below 0.5 ng/ml. Retinal toxicity was evident after the third intravitreal dose with considerable changes in the ERG and histologic damage to the retina.CONCLUSIONS:Digoxin has antitumor activity for retinoblastoma while exerting antiangiogenic activity in vitro at similar concentrations. Metronomic treatment showed no advantage in terms of dose for cytotoxic effect. Four biweekly injections of digoxin led to local toxicity to the retina but no systemic toxicity in rabbits.Fil: Winter, Ursula Andrea. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan"; ArgentinaFil: Buitrago, Emiliano. Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan"; ArgentinaFil: Mena, Hebe Agustina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: del Sole, Maria Jose. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Fisiopatología. Laboratorio de Farmacología; ArgentinaFil: Laurent, Viviana Eunice. Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan"; ArgentinaFil: Negrotto, Soledad. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Francis, Jasmine. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Estados UnidosFil: Arana, Eloisa. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Inmunología, Genética y Metabolismo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Inmunología, Genética y Metabolismo; ArgentinaFil: Sgroi, Mariana. Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan"; ArgentinaFil: Croxatto, Juan Oscar. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Fundación Oftalmología Argentina "J. Malbrán"; ArgentinaFil: Djaballah, Hakim. Core Facility Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Estados UnidosFil: Chantada, Guillermo Luis. Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan"; ArgentinaFil: Abramson, David. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Estados UnidosFil: Schaiquevich, Paula Susana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Hospital de Pediatría "Juan P. Garrahan"; Argentin

    Discerning the spatio-temporal disease patterns of surgically induced OA mouse models

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    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in ageing societies, with no effective therapies available to date. Two preclinical models are widely used to validate novel OA interventions (MCL-MM and DMM). Our aim is to discern disease dynamics in these models to provide a clear timeline in which various pathological changes occur. OA was surgically induced in mice by destabilisation of the medial meniscus. Analysis of OA progression revealed that the intensity and duration of chondrocyte loss and cartilage lesion formation were significantly different in MCL-MM vs DMM. Firstly, apoptosis was seen prior to week two and was narrowly restricted to the weight bearing area. Four weeks post injury the magnitude of apoptosis led to a 40–60% reduction of chondrocytes in the non-calcified zone. Secondly, the progression of cell loss preceded the structural changes of the cartilage spatio-temporally. Lastly, while proteoglycan loss was similar in both models, collagen type II degradation only occurred more prominently in MCL-MM. Dynamics of chondrocyte loss and lesion formation in preclinical models has important implications for validating new therapeutic strategies. Our work could be helpful in assessing the feasibility and expected response of the DMM- and the MCL-MM models to chondrocyte mediated therapies

    Canonical transforming growth factor-β signaling regulates disintegrin metalloprotease expression in experimental renal fibrosis via miR-29

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    Fibrosis pathophysiology is critically regulated by Smad 2– and Smad 3–mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Disintegrin metalloproteases (Adam) can manipulate the signaling environment, however, the role and regulation of ADAMs in renal fibrosis remain unclear. TGF-β stimulation of renal cells results in a significant up-regulation of Adams 10, 17, 12, and 19. The selective Smad2/3 inhibitor SB 525334 reversed these TGF-β–induced changes. In vivo, using ureteral obstruction to model renal fibrosis, we observed increased Adams gene expression that was blocked by oral administration of SB 525334. Similar increases in Adam gene expression also occurred in preclinical models of hypertension-induced renal damage and glomerulonephritis. miRNAs are a recently discovered second level of regulation of gene expression. Analysis of 3′ untranslated regions of Adam12 and Adam19 mRNAs showed multiple binding sites for miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. We show that miR-29 family expression is decreased after unilateral ureter obstruction and this significant decrease in miR-29 family expression was observed consistently in preclinical models of renal dysfunction and correlated with an increase in Adam12 and Adam19 expression. Exogenous overexpression of the miR-29 family blocked TGF-β–mediated up-regulation of Adam12 and Adam19 gene expression. This study shows that Adams are involved in renal fibrosis and are regulated by canonical TGF-β signaling and miR-29. Therefore, both Adams and the miR-29 family represent therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis

    Sensitivity to cdk1-inhibition is modulated by p53 status in preclinical models of embryonal tumors

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    Dysregulation of the cell cycle and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) is a hallmark of cancer cells. Intervention with cdk function is currently evaluated as a therapeutic option in many cancer types including neuroblastoma (NB), a common solid tumor of childhood. Re-analyses of mRNA profiling data from primary NB revealed that high level mRNA expression of both cdk1 and its corresponding cyclin, CCNB1, were significantly associated with worse patient outcome independent of MYCN amplification, a strong indicator of adverse NB prognosis. Cdk1 as well as CCNB1 expression were readily detectable in all embryonal tumor cell lines investigated. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of cdk1/CCNB1 induced proliferation arrest independent of MYCN status in NB cells. Sensitivity to cdk1 inhibition was modulated by TP53, which was demonstrated using isogenic cells with wild-type TP53 expressing either dominant-negative p53 or a short hairpin RNA directed against TP53. Apoptosis induced by cdk1 inhibition was dependent on caspase activation and was concomitant with upregulation of transcriptional targets of TP53. Our results confirm an essential role for the cdk1/CCNB1 complex in tumor cell survival. As relapsing embryonal tumors often present with p53 pathway alterations, these findings have potential implications for therapy approaches targeting cdks
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