81 research outputs found

    Determinants and Effects of Post-Migration Education Among New Immigrants in Canada

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    This study investigates post-migration educational investment among newly arrived immigrants and examines the effect of post-migration education on new immigrants’ labour market integration, as measured by earnings and occupational status. The results indicate that younger immigrants who are already well educated, fluent in English or French and worked in a professional or managerial occupation prior to migration are most likely to enroll in Canadian education. But, acceptance of previous work experience by Canadian employers lowers the likelihood of enrolling in further education. Financial capital was not found to affect participation in post-migration education. Those immigrants who did enroll in post-migration education enjoyed an earnings advantage and were more likely to work in a professional or managerial job. The effect of post-migration education was greater for immigrants whose previous work experience was not accepted in Canada.Immigrant Workers, Education, Wages

    Post-Migration Education Among Refugees in the Netherlands

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    Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the literature by analyzing survey data from the Netherlands on post-migration education among more than 3,000 adult refugees who come from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. I find that refugees’ investments in schooling depend on both pre- and post-migration characteristics. Results show that post-migration schooling is more common among adult refugees who are higher educated, who arrived at a younger age, who have applied for recognition of their foreign education, and who have (successfully) participated in integration and/or language courses. When refugees are kept in an asylum center for a longer time, they are less likely to invest in post-migration education.</p

    Post-Migration Education Among Refugees in the Netherlands

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    Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the literature by analyzing survey data from the Netherlands on post-migration education among more than 3,000 adult refugees who come from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. I find that refugees’ investments in schooling depend on both pre- and post-migration characteristics. Results show that post-migration schooling is more common among adult refugees who are higher educated, who arrived at a younger age, who have applied for recognition of their foreign education, and who have (successfully) participated in integration and/or language courses. When refugees are kept in an asylum center for a longer time, they are less likely to invest in post-migration education

    Upward, Lateral, or Downward? Multiple Perspectives on Migrants’ Educational Mobilities

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    Education is a major component of individuals’ social status in terms of self-positioning and economic opportunities. Migrants’ qualifications from abroad are often devalued by employers or state institutions. One option to react to such a lack of recognition is the gaining of institutionalized cultural capital in the receiving society. Comparing levels of education attained before and after migration, migrants may move in an upward, lateral, or downward direction. Our study investigates the vertical dimension of transnational educational mobility from multiple perspectives. First, our quantitative analysis of the NEPS (the German National Educational Panel Study) relates the levels of pre- and post-migration education. We critically reflect on how respective results on educational mobility depend on how respondents sort their foreign education into the German system of educational categories and hierarchies used in the survey questionnaire. Second, our qualitative analysis sheds light on several dimensions of migrants’ subjective views and how their educational biographies interact with institutional settings in the receiving society. Exemplarily presented in-depth interviews focus on migrants who pursued educational programs in order to be able to return to the occupations (nursing and economics) they had been trained for abroad, but for which they were denied recognition in Germany. Our findings emphasize that post-migration education is highly ambivalent in terms of in- and exclusion. Individual migrants are caught in the structural tension between academic education as a rather globalized institution and nationally specific educational programs and hierarchies which are often incompatible across borders

    Transnational Engagement and Immigrants’ Well-Being in Canada

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    After migration, most immigrants do not dissociate themselves from their relational networks in their homeland. Instead, they nourish, reproduce, and maintain ties with their non-migrant relatives and friends by engaging in various forms of transnational activities. Within the transnational paradigm, remittances are central to maintaining transnational relationships. Immigrants’ demonstration of affection and solidarity in the absence of physical propinquity and intimacy is highly contingent on their remittance transfers. Over the years, the motives, determinants, benefits, and consequences of these financial flows on the well-being of recipients in origin communities have been extensively studied. However, the existing literature is mainly informed by economic imperatives, leaving us with limited understanding of the social dimensions of immigrants’ remittance decisions. More so, there is a dearth of studies that explore how immigrants’ remittance practices affect their lived experiences in destination countries. Considering these research gaps, I employ different statistical techniques (Two-level mixed-effects logistic regression, Pooled OLS regression, and logistic and multinomial regression with lagged dependent variable(s)) to explore the economic and social dimensions of immigrants’ remittance behaviour and the impact of these transfers on their well-being in Canada. The analyses are based on data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC, 2001, 2003, 2005). The study background, research objectives, and questions are outlined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, I scope the literature and provide an extensive background on the entire migration process—including the motives, decisions, and opportunities for migration and integration in destination societies, as well as the transnational connections immigrants maintain after migration. In Chapter 3, I move beyond the economically functionalist remittance theories to explore the social dimensions of immigrants’ remittance behaviour through the lens of gender and social networks. The primary objective is to determine how the remittance practices of male and female immigrants are uniquely informed by a) their intentions to help their non-migrant relatives and friends relocate to Canada and b) their involvement in ethnic/immigrant associations and religious organizations. The findings suggest that immigrants’ social networks in destination and origin societies engender and reproduce gendered remittance practices. In light of my findings, I recommend the incorporation of network effects and gender into the existing remittance models to broaden our understanding of immigrants’ remittance practices. In Chapter 4, I make a theoretical and empirical contribution to the sociology of health literature by examining how immigrants’ remittance behaviour affects their emotional health, and the extent to which this relationship varies by gender. The findings demonstrate that sending remittances within the first six months of arrival predisposes immigrants to emotional health problems. However, remitting after six months of arrival provides an “emotional advantage” for immigrants, but this advantage is greater for female immigrants compared with their male counterparts. In Chapter 5, I examine the extent to which immigrants’ remittance behaviour stifles their initiatives to fulfill their educational aspirations after migration. The findings suggest that remittance sending—despite its symbolic and moral connotations—can stifle immigrants’ pursuit of post-migration education. Findings from Chapters 4 and 5 reveal that immigrants’ well-being in destination societies cannot be fully understood apart from their transnational engagements. Hence, I call for the incorporation of transnational theory into the frameworks guiding research on the well-being of immigrants, and, in doing so, I argue that it is essential to consider the role of gender since it circumscribes every aspect of the migration process

    INTERNAL GEOGRAPHICAL MOBILITY AND EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES. AN ANALYSIS FOR AN ITALIAN PROVINCE.

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    This paper aims at analysing the educational outcomes of a cohort of youths living in an Italian province (Novara), which was interested by large migration phenomenon during the last decades and, therefore, it is particularly suited to study inter-regional mobility issues. In particular we aim at establishing if, once controlled for parental educational background, family origin affects human capital accumulation. We find that non native youths on average have a higher probability of early leaving educational system. If the 1st generation migrants are the less advantaged as for educational attainment, even 2nd generation migrants, that in principle should be completely integrated, perform worse than the native born. This evidence calls into question the integration of internal migrants, for whom education plays a crucial role, even in a period in which foreign immigration seems to be of major concern.Internal migration; Education; Survival analysis; Unobserved heterogeneity.

    Introduction to a Special Issue on the Impact of Immigrant Legalization Initiatives: International Perspectives on Immigration and the World of Work

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    This article is the third in a series to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the ILR Review. The series features articles that analyze the state of research and future directions for important themes the journal has featured over its many years of publication. In this issue, we also feature a special cluster of articles and book reviews on one of the most critical labor market issues across the globe—the legalization and integration of immigrants into national labor markets. Despite the urgent need for immigration reform in the United States, there is a paucity of US research that looks at the impact of a shift from unauthorized to legal immigrant status in the workplace. The US immigration literature has also paid little attention to immigrant legalization policies outside of the United States, despite the fact that other countries have implemented such policies with far more regularity. The articles in this special issue draw on studies of legalization initiatives in major immigrant destinations: Canada, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Together they underscore the importance of cross-national perspectives for understanding the range of legalization programs and their impact on immigrant workers, the workplace, and the labor market. These findings contribute to key questions in migration scholarship and inform the global policy debate surrounding the integration and well-being of immigrant

    Circular Movements and Time away from the Host Country

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    The economic literature has largely overlooked the importance of repeat migration. This paper studies repeat or circular migration as it is manifested by the frequency of exits of migrants living in Germany, and by the number of years being away from the host country using count data models. More than 60% of the guestworker generation currently living in Germany, the largest European immigration country, are indeed repeat migrants. The findings indicate that immigrants from European countries, the less educated, those with weak labor market attachements, the younger and the older people (excluding the middle ages), and the newcomers and the more seasoned are significantly more likely to engage in circular migration and to stay out of Germany for longer. Males exit more frequently than females but do not differ in the time spent out. Those migrants with family in the home country remain out longer but are not more frequently out.Repeat migration, circular migration, guestworkers; minorities

    Does age-at-migration in childhood affect migrant socioeconomic achievements in adulthood?

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    Migrant populations consist of individuals who migrated at different stages in the development of their human capabilities. Age-at-migration refers to the age at which an individual migrates. This paper reviews some theoretical arguments and empirical evidence on whether a child’s age-at-migration alters the impact of migration on income, employment and other socioeconomic indicators in the adult phase of the child’s life. Most research looks at the contemporaneous impact of migration on children, whereas this paper considers the longitudinal impact of childhood migration on well-being throughout life. Age-at-migration might affect human capital and economic productivity, integration at destinations, and attachments to origins. Studies show that children migrating at older ages ultimately achieve less total education (origin education plus destination education), weaker destination-language acquisition and lower earnings than those arriving as younger children; but they have higher adult earnings compared to those arriving as adults. There appears to be little difference between those arriving before age 5 years and those born at destination, which is surprising given considerable literature on the human development significance of early child ages (although this could be due to the limited availability of relevant empirical literature). Variations in the effects of age-at-migration are noted across migrant populations in different destination societies, which underline the possibility of public policy to influence such human development mechanisms.International migration; Migrant earnings and their distributions; Child migration; Human development; Lifecourse methods

    Circular Migration: Counts of Exits and Years away from the Host Country

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    The economic literature has largely overlooked the importance of repeat and circular migration. The paper studies this behavior by analyzing the number of exits and the total number of years away from the host country using count data models and panel data from Germany. More than 60% of migrants from the guestworker countries are indeed repeat or circular migrants. Migrants from European Union member countries, those not owning a dwelling in Germany, the younger and the older (excluding the middle ages), are significantly more likely to engage in repeat migration and to stay out for longer. Males and those migrants with German passports exit more frequently, while those with higher education exit less; there are no differences with time spent out. Migrants with family in the home country remain out longer, and those closely attached to the labor market remain less; they are not leaving the country more frequently.Repeat migration, circular migration, guestworkers, minorities, count data
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