20,141 research outputs found

    The Draft Genome of the Invasive Walking Stick, Medauroidea extradendata, Reveals Extensive Lineage-Specific Gene Family Expansions of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes in Phasmatodea.

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    Plant cell wall components are the most abundant macromolecules on Earth. The study of the breakdown of these molecules is thus a central question in biology. Surprisingly, plant cell wall breakdown by herbivores is relatively poorly understood, as nearly all early work focused on the mechanisms used by symbiotic microbes to breakdown plant cell walls in insects such as termites. Recently, however, it has been shown that many organisms make endogenous cellulases. Insects, and other arthropods, in particular have been shown to express a variety of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in many gene families with the ability to break down all the major components of the plant cell wall. Here we report the genome of a walking stick, Medauroidea extradentata, an obligate herbivore that makes uses of endogenously produced plant cell wall degrading enzymes. We present a draft of the 3.3Gbp genome along with an official gene set that contains a diversity of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. We show that at least one of the major families of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, the pectinases, have undergone a striking lineage-specific gene family expansion in the Phasmatodea. This genome will be a useful resource for comparative evolutionary studies with herbivores in many other clades and will help elucidate the mechanisms by which metazoans breakdown plant cell wall components

    Homogenization of a system of elastic and reaction-diffusion equations modelling plant cell wall biomechanics

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    In this paper we present a derivation and multiscale analysis of a mathematical model for plant cell wall biomechanics that takes into account both the microscopic structure of a cell wall coming from the cellulose microfibrils and the chemical reactions between the cell wall's constituents. Particular attention is paid to the role of pectin and the impact of calcium-pectin cross-linking chemistry on the mechanical properties of the cell wall. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the strongly coupled microscopic problem consisting of the equations of linear elasticity and a system of reaction-diffusion and ordinary differential equations. Using homogenization techniques (two-scale convergence and periodic unfolding methods) we derive a macroscopic model for plant cell wall biomechanics

    A Synthetic Glycan Microarray Enables Epitope Mapping of Plant Cell Wall Glycan-Directed Antibodies

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    In the last three decades, more than 200 monoclonal antibodies have been raised against most classes of plant cell wall polysaccharides by different laboratories worldwide. These antibodies are widely used to identify differences in plant cell wall components in mutants, organ and tissue types, and developmental stages. Despite their importance and broad use, the precise binding epitope has been determined for only a few of these antibodies. Here, we use a plant glycan microarray equipped with 88 synthetic oligosaccharides to comprehensively map the epitopes of plant cell wall glycan-directed antibodies. Our results reveal the binding epitopes for 78 arabinogalactan-, rhamnogalacturonan-, xylan-, and xyloglucan-directed antibodies. We demonstrate that, with knowledge of the exact epitopes recognized by individual antibodies, specific glycosyl hydrolases can be implemented into immunological cell wall analyses, providing a framework to obtain structural information on plant cell wall glycans with unprecedented molecular precision

    Reaction of gum arabic samples with monoclonal antibodies directed to plant cell wall polymers in dot immunobinding

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    Certain plant cell wall constituents have been found in gum samples derived from Acacia trees, thus analytical techniques for the determination of these plant cell wall components in any media can be applied in the analysis of the physico-chemical properties of these gums. In this experiment, gum samples harvested from various Acacia trees grown in different African countries were subjected to a dot immunobinding reaction using a panel of anti-plant cell wall directed monoclonal antibodies since the gum samples have been found to contain certain plant cell wall constituents. Five antiplant cell wall monoclonal antibodies, JIM 5, JIM 7, JIM 13, LM 6 and MAC 207 were reacted with fifteen gum Arabic samples 1 – 15 and water as control. The results showed that apart from reacting with the monoclonal antibodies, gum samples showed varying degrees of reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. JIM 5 indicated no reaction with any of the gum samples, whereas JIM 7, JIM 13, LM 6 and MAC 207 exhibited reactions with the samples. The results suggest that, anti-plant cell wall directed monoclonal antibodies can be used as a tool to distinguish between gum Arabic samples from different tree species, as well as from different African countries. Thus, a testing kit which is easy to use and cheaper to acquire can be developed using anti-plant cell wall monoclonal antibodies, to improve quality control in the current gum trade

    Attachment of Salmonella strains to a plant cell wall model is modulated by surface characteristics and not by specific carbohydrate interactions

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    Background: Processing of fresh produce exposes cut surfaces of plant cell walls that then become vulnerable to human foodborne pathogen attachment and contamination, particularly by Salmonella enterica. Plant cell walls are mainly composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, pectin and hemicelluloses (predominantly xyloglucan). Our previous work used bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models to study the interaction between Salmonella and the various plant cell wall components. We demonstrated that Salmonella attachment was favoured in the presence of pectin while xyloglucan had no effect on its attachment. Xyloglucan significantly increased the attachment of Salmonella cells to the plant cell wall model only when it was in association with pectin. In this study, we investigate whether the plant cell wall polysaccharides mediate Salmonella attachment to the bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models through specific carbohydrate interactions or through the effects of carbohydrates on the physical characteristics of the attachment surface. Results: We found that none of the monosaccharides that make up the plant cell wall polysaccharides specifically inhibit Salmonella attachment to the bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that Salmonella cells can penetrate and attach within the tightly arranged bacterial cellulose network. Analysis of images obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed that the bacterial cellulose-pectin-xyloglucan composite with 0.3 % (w/v) xyloglucan, previously shown to have the highest number of Salmonella cells attached to it, had significantly thicker cellulose fibrils compared to other composites. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed that the bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose-xyloglucan composites were more porous when compared to the other composites containing pectin. Conclusions: Our study found that the attachment of Salmonella cells to cut plant cell walls was not mediated by specific carbohydrate interactions. This suggests that the attachment of Salmonella strains to the plant cell wall models were more dependent on the structural characteristics of the attachment surface. Pectin reduces the porosity and space between cellulose fibrils, which then forms a matrix that is able to retain Salmonella cells within the bacterial cellulose network. When present with pectin, xyloglucan provides a greater surface for Salmonella cells to attach through the thickening of cellulose fibrils

    Analysis of gene mutation in plant cell wall by dielectric relaxation

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    Arabidopsis Thaliana is a plant composed mainly of cellulose and lignin. Geneticists need techniques able to make differences at the molecular level between modified plants (DML6, CAD C/D) and non-modified ones. Thermo-stimulated current (TSC) analysis is a promising route to identify gene mutations. For the non-modified plant, at low temperatures, TSC thermograms highlight three dielectric relaxation modes. From −150 to −110 ◦C, γCellulose is attributed to CH2OH and –OH groups of cellulose. Between −110 and −80 ◦C, βLignin is detected. From −80 to −40 ◦C, βCellulose is characteristic of the molecular mobility of glycosidic linkages. For the CAD C/D modified plants, only γCellulose and βLignin are observed; due to analogous enthalpy values, those modes have the same molecular origin as in the non-modified plant. So, the βLignin mode is associated with the molecular mobility of the lignin-OH groups. The CAD C/D gene mutation changes the chemical structure of lignin, which promotes hydrogen bonds in the network and inhibits molecular mobility of glucosidic rings. It is also interesting to note that the DML6 gene mutation induces a higher cooperativity of this βCellulose relaxation than in wild vegetal composites. In fact, this mutation promotes molecular mobility of glycosidic rings thanks to β1–4 glycosidic linkages

    Unraveling the mechanism of TTL genes in cellulose biosynthesis

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    As sessile organisms, plants require mechanisms to sense and respond to the challenging environment, that encompass both biotic and abiotic factors that results in differential development. In these conditions is essential to balance growth and stress responses. As cell walls shape plant growth, this differential growth response cause alterations to the plant cell wall where cellulose is the major component. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate cellulose biosynthesis is essential to develop strategies to improve plant production. In Arabidopsis, the TETRATRICOPEPTIDE THIOREDOXIN-LIKE (TTL) gene family is composed by four members (TTL1 to TTL4) and mutations in TTL1, TTL3, and TTL4 genes cause reduced growth under salt and osmotic stress due to defects in plant cell wall integrity. We observe association of TTL3 with most core components in traducing BR signalling, such as LRR-RLK BRI1 or GSK3 BIN2 that modulate cellulose biosynthesis through phosphorylating cellulose synthases. Here, we show that ttl mutants present defects in the plant cell wall, particularly in Isoxaben, salt or sucrose stress. Spinning disk microscopy in etiolated hypocotyls reveals that, TTL proteins are responsible for the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) stability in plasma membrane (PM) upon sucrose stress. Moreover, TTL3 associates with LRR-RLKs that have been shown to be important for cellulose biosynthesis such as FEI1 in the FEI1/FEI2/SOS5 pathway. We aim to investigate the mechanisms by which TTL proteins regulate CesA stability in PM under stress, using a combination of genetics, biochemical, and molecular and cell biology approaches.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech. This work was supported by grants from: (1) Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación BIO2014-55380-R, BIO2014-56153-REDT; (2) Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (BES-2015-071256
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