446,679 research outputs found

    Dynamically optimal phosphorus management and agricultural water protection

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    This paper puts forward a model of the role of phosphorus in crop production, soil phosphorus dynamics and phosphorus loading that integrates the salient economic and ecological features of agricultural phosphorus management. The model accounts for the links between phosphorus fertilization, crop yield, accumulation of soil phosphorus reserves, and phosphorus loading. It can be used to guide precision phosphorus management and erosion control as means to mitigate agricultural loading. Using a parameterization for cereal production in southern Finland, the model is solved numerically to analyze the intertemporally optimal combination of fertilization and erosion and the associated soil phosphorus development. The optimal fertilizer application rate changes markedly over time in response to changes in the soil phosphorus level. When, for instance, soil phosphorus is initially above the socially optimal steady state level, annually matching phosphorus application to the prevailing soil phosphorus stock produces significantly higher social welfare than using a fixed fertilizer application rate. Erosion control was found to increase welfare only on land that is highly susceptible to erosion

    Phosphorus nutrition of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal tree seedlings from a lowland tropical rain forest in Korup National Park, Cameroon

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    The relationship between mycorrhizal colonisation and phosphorus acquired by seedlings of the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree Oubanguia alata Bak f. (Scytopetalaceae) and the ectomycorrhizal tree Tetraberlinia moreliana Aubr. (Caesalpiniodeae) was evaluated at low and high inorganic phosphorus availability. AM colonisation was positively correlated with phosphorus uptake by O. alata at low, but not at high phosphorus availability. Seedlings growth was positively related to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation at both low and high phosphorus availability, suggesting that growth promotion by arbuscular mycorrhizas is not simply related to an increase of phosphorus uptake. In contrast, phosphorus uptake by T. moreliana was correlated with EM colonisation at both low and high phosphorus availability, but there was no relationship between growth and ectomycorrhizal colonisation. Promotion of phosphorus uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizas and ectomycorrhizas at low phosphorus availability is consistent with the co-occurrence of the two types of mycorrhiza in tropical rain forests where available soil phosphorus is low. However, ectomycorrhizal colonisation may also be of advantage where inputs of phosphorus rich litter raise the phosphorus status of the soil, as seen in the groves of ectomycorrhizal trees in Korup National Park, and may be one of the factors reinforcing local dominance by these trees

    The potential release of phosphorus in floodplains

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    In the Illinois River Watershed, there has been growing concern over elevated phosphorus concentrations in the water column. This study evaluated how much phosphorus is contributed from floodplain soils into surface waters, examining the relationship between the flux of phosphorus released and the amount of phosphorus stored in the soil. This was investigated by artificially inundating soil cores from four sites and determining the soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations of the overlying water and the levels of Water and Mehlich-3 extractable phosphorus in the soil. The flux of phosphorus to the overlying water ranged from 0.43 to 6.61 mg m-2 hr-1 within the short-term (16.5-hr incubation) and 0.06 to 1.26 mg m-2 hr-1 over the long term (282.5-hr incubation). Phosphorus flux to the overlying water was significantly correlated with the amount of phosphorus stored in the soil. This study showed that riparian soils with elevated phosphorus content have the potential to release phosphorus when flooded

    Structures, enthalpies of formation, and ionization energies for the parent and binary mixed carbon, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cubane derivatives: A G4MP2 theoretical study

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    Gas phase standard state (298.15 K, 1 atm) structures, enthalpies of formation, and ionization energies (IEs) were calculated at the G4MP2 composite method level of theory for the parent and binary mixed carbon, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cubane derivatives. Increasing nitrogen content increases the enthalpies of formation for the carbon-nitrogen, nitrogen-phosphorus, and silicon-nitrogen binary cubanes, with the opposite enthalpies of formation trend for increasing phosphorus content within the carbon-phosphorus, nitrogen-phosphorus, and silicon-phosphorus derivatives. Varying carbon/silicon content in the carbon-silicon cubanes results in no general trends for enthalpies of formation. Isomerization enthalpies within the homolog groups having more than one isomer vary widely with atomic composition and substitution patterns. Increasing nitrogen content of the carbon-nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus derivatives increases the IE, increasing silicon content in the carbon-silicon cubanes and phosphorus content of the carbon-phosphorus cubanes decreases the IE, while no IE clear trends are evident based on relative atomic content for the silicon-nitrogen and silicon-phosphorus compounds. The binary mixed carbon, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cubane derivatives are predicted to display potentially tunable thermodynamic stability and redox behavior depending on the atom identities and relative positions

    Unusually stable helical coil allotrope of phosphorus

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    We have identified an unusually stable helical coil allotrope of phosphorus. Our ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations indicate that the uncoiled, isolated straight 1D chain is equally stable as a monolayer of black phosphorus dubbed phosphorene. The coiling tendency and the attraction between adjacent coil segments add an extra stabilization energy of about 12 meV/atom to the coil allotrope, similar in value to the approximately 16 meV/atom inter-layer attraction in bulk black phosphorus. Thus, the helical coil structure is essentially as stable as black phosphorus, the most stable phosphorus allotrope known to date. With an optimum radius of 2.4 nm, the helical coil of phosphorus may fit well and even form inside wide carbon nanotubes.Comment: The paper has been accepted by Nano. Lett. (2016

    Dynamically Optimal Phosphorus Management and Agricultural Water Protection

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    This paper puts forward a model of the role of phosphorus in crop production, soil phosphorus dynamics and phosphorus loading that integrates the salient economic and ecological features of agricultural phosphorus management. The model accounts for the links between phosphorus fertilization, crop yield, accumulation of soil phosphorus reserves, and phosphorus loading. It can be used to guide precision phosphorus management and erosion control as means to mitigate agricultural loading. Using a parameterization for cereal production in southern Finland, the model is solved numerically to analyze the intertemporally optimal combination of fertilization and erosion control and the associated soil phosphorus development. The optimal fertilizer application rate changes markedly over time in response to changes in the soil phosphorus level. When, for instance, soil phosphorus is initially above the socially optimal steady state level, annually matching phosphorus application to the prevailing soil phosphorus stock produces significantly higher social welfare than using a fixed fertilizer application rate. Erosion control was found to increase welfare only on land that is highly susceptible to erosion.precision nutrient management, agricultural phosphorus loading, cereal production, soil phosphorus reserves, agricultural water pollution, dynamic programming, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy,
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