73,470 research outputs found

    A dual function for Pex3p in peroxisome formation and inheritance

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    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex3p has been shown to act at the ER during de novo peroxisome formation. However, its steady state is at the peroxisomal membrane, where its role is debated. Here we show that Pex3p has a dual function: one in peroxisome formation and one in peroxisome segregation. We show that the peroxisome retention factor Inp1p interacts physically with Pex3p in vitro and in vivo, and split-GFP analysis shows that the site of interaction is the peroxisomal membrane. Furthermore, we have generated PEX3 alleles that support peroxisome formation but fail to support recruitment of Inp1p to peroxisomes, and as a consequence are affected in peroxisome segregation. We conclude that Pex3p functions as an anchor for Inp1p at the peroxisomal membrane, and that this function is independent of its role at the ER in peroxisome biogenesis

    The Hansenula polymorpha PER8 Gene Encodes a Novel Peroxisomal Integral Membrane Protein Involved in Proliferation

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    We previously described the isolation of mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Here, we describe the characterization of one of these mutants, per8, and the cloning of the PER8 gene. In either methanol or methylamine medium, conditions that normally induce the organdies, per8 cells contain no peroxisome-like structures and peroxisomal enzymes are located in the cytosol. The sequence of PER8 predicts that its product (Per8p) is a novel polypeptide of 34 kD, and antibodies against Per8p recognize a protein of 31 kD. Analysis of the primary sequence of Per8p revealed a 39-amino-acid cysteine-rich segment with similarity to the C3HC4 family of zinc-finger motifs. Overexpression of PER8 results in a markedly enhanced increase in peroxisome numbers. We show that Per8p is an integral membrane protein of the peroxisome and that it is concentrated in the membranes of newly formed organdies. We propose that Per8p is a component of the molecular machinery that controls the proliferation of this organelle.

    Linking Induction and Transrepression of PPARβ/δ with Cellular Function

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    The copyrights of all papers published in this journal are retained by the respective authors as per the 'Creative Commons Attribution License' (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors and members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARβ/δ is ubiquitously expressed and has a central role in homeostasis, and has been suggested as a therapeutic target for a number of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. This important nuclear receptor controls transcription under different modes of molecular activity which directly control the cellular function and fate of tissues. This complex activity of induction and transrepression of gene expression (with and without exogenous ligands) is poorly understood and yet understanding this molecular control through novel drug development would led to control over a key molecular switch in all cells. This review outlines the main molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ, and links the modes of activity to the signalling pathways in inflammation, proliferation and senescence, with the goal to understand how this will translate into novel drug design to control the PPARβ/δ molecular switch.Peer reviewe

    A comparative study of peroxisomal structures in Hansenula polymorpha pex mutants

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    In a recent study, we performed a systematic genome analysis for the conservation of genes involved in peroxisome biogenesis (PEX genes) in various fungi. We have now performed a systematic study of the morphology of peroxisome remnants (‘ghosts’) in Hansenula polymorpha pex mutants (pex1–pex20) and the level of peroxins and matrix proteins in these strains. To this end, all available H. polymorpha pex strains were grown under identical cultivation conditions in glucose-limited chemostat cultures and analyzed in detail. The H. polymorpha pex mutants could be categorized into four distinct groups, namely pex mutants containing: (1) virtually normal peroxisomal structures (pex7, pex17, pex20); (2) small peroxisomal membrane structures with a distinct lumen (pex2, pex4, pex5, pex10, pex12, pex14); (3) multilayered membrane structures lacking apparent matrix protein content (pex1, pex6, pex8, pex13); and (4) no peroxisomal structures (pex3, pex19).

    Hansenula polymorpha: An attractive model organism for molecular studies of peroxisome biogenesis and function

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    In wild-type Hansenula polymorpha the proliferation of peroxisomes is induced by various unconventional carbon- and nitrogen sources. Highest induction levels, up to 80% of the cytoplasmic volume, are observed in cells grown in methanol-limited chemostat cultures. Based on our accumulated experience, we are now able to precisely adjust both the level of peroxisome induction as well as their protein composition by specific adaptations in growth conditions. During the last few years a series of peroxisome-deficient (per) mutants of H. polymorpha have been isolated and characterized. Phenotypically these mutants are characterized by the fact that they are not able to grow on methanol. Three mutant phenotypes were defined on the basis of morphological criteria, namely: (a) mutants completely lacking peroxisomes (Per-; 13 complementation groups); (b) mutants containing few small peroxisomes which are partly impaired in the peroxisomal import of matrix proteins (Pim-; five complementation groups); and (c) mutants with aberrations in the peroxisomal substructure (Pss-; two complementation groups). In addition, several conditional Per-, Pim- and Pss- mutants have been obtained. In all cases the mutant phenotype was shown to be caused by a recessive mutation in one gene. However, we observed that different mutations in one gene may cause different morphological mutant phenotypes. A detailed genetic analysis revealed that several PER genes, essential for peroxisome biogenesis, are tightly linked and organized in a hierarchical fashion. The use of both constitual and conditional per mutants in current and future studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling peroxisome biogenesis and function is discussed.

    A Peroxisomal Lon Protease and Peroxisome Degradation by Autophagy Play Key Roles in Vitality of Hansenula polymorpha Cells

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    In eukaryote cells various mechanisms exist that are responsible for the removal of non-functional proteins. Here we show that in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (H. polymorpha) a peroxisomal Lon protease, Pln, plays a role in degradation of unfolded and non-assembled peroxisomal matrix proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that whole peroxisomes are constitutively degraded by autophagy during normal vegetative growth of WT cells. Deletion of both H. polymorpha PLN and ATG1, required for autophagy, resulted in a significant increase in peroxisome numbers, paralleled by a decrease in cell viability relative to WT cells. Also, in these cells and in cells of PLN and ATG1 single deletion strains, the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species had increased relative to WT controls. The enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species may be related to an uneven distribution of peroxisomal catalase activities in the mutant cells, as demonstrated by cytochemistry. We speculate that in the absence of HpPln or autophagy unfolded and non-assembled peroxisomal matrix proteins accumulate, which can form aggregates and lead to an imbalance in hydrogen peroxide production and degradation in some of the organelles.

    Cadmium and arsenic-induced-stress differentially modulates Arabidopsis root architecture, peroxisome distribution, enzymatic activities and their nitric oxide content

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    In plant cells, cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) exert toxicity mainly by inducing oxidative stress through an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and their detoxification. Nitric oxide (NO) is a RNS acting as signalling molecule coordinating plant development and stress responses, but also as oxidative stress inducer, depending on its cellular concentration. Peroxisomes are versatile organelles involved in plant metabolism and signalling, with a role in cellular redox balance thanks to their antioxidant enzymes, and their RNS (mainly NO) and ROS. This study analysed Cd or As effects on peroxisomes, and NO production and distribution in the root system, including primary root (PR) and lateral roots (LRs). Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and transgenic plants enabling peroxisomes to be visualized in vivo, through the expression of the 35S-cyan fluorescent protein fused to the peroxisomal targeting signal1 (PTS1) were used. Peroxisomal enzymatic activities including the antioxidant catalase, the H2O2-generating glycolate oxidase, and the hydroxypyruvate reductase, and root system morphology were also evaluated under Cd/As exposure. Results showed that Cd and As differently modulate these activities, however, catalase activity was inhibited by both. Moreover, Arabidopsis root system was altered, with the pollutants differently affecting PR growth, but similarly enhancing LR formation. Only in the PR apex, and not in LR one, Cd more than As caused significant changes in peroxisome distribution, size, and in peroxisomal NO content. By contrast, neither pollutant caused significant changes in peroxisomes size and peroxisomal NO content in the LR apex

    The role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport

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    We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.Comment: 24 pages, 5 figure
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