39,833 research outputs found

    Novel role for the LKB1 pathway in controlling monocarboxylate fuel transporters

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    A question preoccupying many researchers is how signal transduction pathways control metabolic processes and energy production. A study by Jang et al. (Jang, C., G. Lee, and J. Chung. 2008. J. Cell Biol. 183:11–17) provides evidence that in Drosophila melanogaster a signaling network controlled by the LKB1 tumor suppressor regulates trafficking of an Sln/dMCT1 monocarboxylate transporter to the plasma membrane. This enables cells to import additional energy sources such as lactate and butyrate, enhancing the repertoire of fuels they can use to power vital activities

    A novel role of Drosophila cytochrome P450-4e3 in permethrin insecticide tolerance

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    The exposure of insects to xenobiotics, such as insecticides, triggers a complex defence response necessary for survival. This response includes the induction of genes that encode key Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxification enzymes. Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules are critical organs in the detoxification and elimination of these foreign compounds, so the tubule response induced by dietary exposure to the insecticide permethrin was examined. We found that expression of the gene encoding Cytochrome P450-4e3 (Cyp4e3) is significantly up-regulated by Drosophila fed on permethrin and that manipulation of Cyp4e3 levels, specifically in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules, impacts significantly on the survival of permethrin-fed flies. Both dietary exposure to permethrin and Cyp4e3 knockdown cause a significant elevation of oxidative stress-associated markers in the tubules, including H2O2 and lipid peroxidation byproduct, HNE (4-hydroxynonenal). Thus, Cyp4e3 may play an important role in regulating H2O2 levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it resides, and its absence triggers a JAK/STAT and NF-κB-mediated stress response, similar to that observed in cells under ER stress. This work increases our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insecticide detoxification and provides further evidence of the oxidative stress responses induced by permethrin metabolism

    A Novel Role of Cdk9/CyclinT2 complexes in skeletal muscle and Rhabdomyosarcoma cells

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    Cyclin dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) is a member of the cyclin dependent kinase family. The regulatory units of Cdk9 are the T family Cyclins (T1, T2) and Cyclin K1. Cyclin T2 has two forms termed CycT2a and CycT2b that arise by an alternative splicing of the primary transcript. Previous studies underscored a crucial role for Cdk9 in association of Cyclin T2 during skeletal myogenesis. Upon induction of muscle differentiation, MyoD recruits Cdk9/CycT2 on musclespecific gene promoter sequences. This complex is able to phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, enhancing Myod function and promoting myogenic differentiation. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), one of the most common childhood solid tumor, arises from muscle precursor cells and fails to complete both the differentiation program both the irreversibly cell cycle exit, resulting in uncontrolled proliferation and incomplete myogenesis. In RMS, Cdk9 fails to phosphorylate MyoD and the ability of MyoD to arrest cell proliferation and to activate the myogenic program is repressed. The result of this study confirmed the involvement of Cdk9/ CyclinT2 complexes during the myogenesis. Both isoforms of Cyclin T2 are able to activate the myogenic program at different stages of differentiation but CycT2b have a predominant role of in particular during the latest stages. Moreover we demonstred that EZH2 is probably responsible to inhibition of Cdk9 in RMS cells and her overexpression contribuite to inhibition of myogenesis

    Kalirin : novel role in osteocyte function

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    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)Communication between bone cells is important for the maintenance of bone mass. Although osteocytes are deeply embedded within the mineralized matrix, they are essential for the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast functions. However, the intracellular proteins that control the morphology and function of osteocytes, and their ability to communicate with other bone cells are still unknown. Kalirin is a novel multi-domain GTP exchange factor (GEF) protein that activates the RhoGTPases. Recently, we found that 14 week old female Kalirin knockout (Kal-KO) mice exhibit a 45% decrease in trabecular bone density and have significantly lower cortical area, perimeter, thickness and polar cross-sectional moment of inertia (-12.6%, -7.2%, -7.6% and -21.9%, respectively) than WT mice. Kalirin was found to be expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts but its expression and function in osteocytes is currently unclear. We examined the role of Kalirin on the morphology and function of osteocytes. Primary osteocytes were isolated by sequential collagenase digestions from long bones (femurs and tibias) of 10-week old WT and Kal-KO mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed Kalirin was localized to the perinuclear region of primary osteocytes and MLO-Y4 cells, and was detected along the cytoplasmic processes of primary osteocytes. We also examined primary osteocytes isolated from the long bones of Kal-KO and WT mice for changes in the length and number of cytoplasmic processes. Kal-KO osteocytes were found to express significantly fewer cytoplasmic processes per cell (3.3±0.21) than WT osteocytes (4.7±0.3). In addition, the cytoplasmic processes of Kal-KO osteocytes were shorter (79.5±4.6 µm) than those observed for WT osteocytes (85.4±3.6 µm) (p <0.01). Quantitative PCR revealed the expression of mRNA for the three major Kalirin isoforms (Kal-7, Kal-9, Kal-12) in primary osteocytes and in MLO-Y4 cells. Moreover, the mRNA levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and SOST, which are important for controlling osteoclast differentiation and Wnt signaling leading to bone formation, respectively, were reduced in Kal-KO osteocytes. Next, the role of Kalirin in osteocyte morphology and function was further examined. Treatment of MLO-Y4 cells for 5 days with nerve growth factor, which is known to activate Kalirin in neurons, or over-expression of the Ser-Thr kinase domain of Kal-12, promoted cytoplasmic process elongation and upregulated phosphorylated ERK and RhoA levels. Together, these results suggest that Kalirin controls osteocyte morphology and function in part by regulating cytoskeletal remodeling and the activity of ERK and RhoA. Furthermore, Kalirin may control the bone remodeling cycle by regulating osteocyte signaling to osteoclasts and osteoblasts