203,422 research outputs found

    Neutrophils in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are permanently activated and have functional defects

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    A growing body of studies highlights involvement of neutrophils in cancer development and progression. Our aim was to assess the phenotypic and functional properties of circulating neutrophils from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The percentage of CD54+ and CD64+ neutrophils as well as CD54 expression on these cells were higher in CLL patients than in age-matched healthy controls. Neutrophils from CLL produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to controls in both resting and activated conditions. Lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1 beta and TNF-a as well as reduced TLR2 expression in neutrophils from CLL than in neutrophils from controls suggesting their tolerant state. Finally, phenotypic alterations of neutrophils, particularly elevation of CD64 and CD54 markers, correlated with disease activity and treatment, and low percentage of neutrophils. Taken together, the alterations in percentage and functional characteristics of neutrophils reflect the clinical course of CLL. Our data provide first evidence that neutrophils in CLL are permanently primed and have functional defects.Web of Science849849018488

    Neutrophils in cancer: neutral no more

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    Neutrophils are indispensable antagonists of microbial infection and facilitators of wound healing. In the cancer setting, a newfound appreciation for neutrophils has come into view. The traditionally held belief that neutrophils are inert bystanders is being challenged by the recent literature. Emerging evidence indicates that tumours manipulate neutrophils, sometimes early in their differentiation process, to create diverse phenotypic and functional polarization states able to alter tumour behaviour. In this Review, we discuss the involvement of neutrophils in cancer initiation and progression, and their potential as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets

    Visceral leishmaniasis patients display altered composition and maturity of neutrophils as well as impaired neutrophil effector functions

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    Immunologically, active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterised by profound immunosuppression, severe systemic inflammatory responses and an impaired capacity to control parasite replication. Neutrophils are highly versatile cells, which play a crucial role in the induction as well as the resolution of inflammation, the control of pathogen replication and the regulation of immune responses. Neutrophil functions have been investigated in human cutaneous leishmaniasis, however, their role in human visceral leishmaniasis is poorly understood. In the present study we evaluated the activation status and effector functions of neutrophils in patients with active VL and after successful anti-leishmanial treatment. Our results show that neutrophils are highly activated and have degranulated; high levels of arginase, myeloperoxidase and elastase, all contained in neutrophils’ granules, were found in the plasma of VL patients. In addition, we show that a large proportion of these cells are immature. We also analysed effector functions of neutrophils that are essential for pathogen clearance and show that neutrophils have an impaired capacity to release neutrophil extracellular traps, produce reactive oxygen species and phagocytose bacterial particles, but not Leishmania parasites. Our results suggest that impaired effector functions, increased activation and immaturity of neutrophils play a key role in the pathogenesis of VL

    The interrelationship between phagocytosis, autophagy and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps following infection of human neutrophils by Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Neutrophils play an important role in the innate immune response to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus. Pneumococci are phagocytosed by neutrophils and undergo killing after ingestion. Other cellular processes may also be induced, including autophagy and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which may play a role in bacterial eradication. We set out to determine how these different processes interacted following pneumococcal infection of neutrophils, and the role of the major pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin in these various pathways. We found that pneumococci induced autophagy in neutrophils in a type III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase dependent fashion that also required the autophagy gene Atg5. Pneumolysin did not affect this process. Phagocytosis was inhibited by pneumolysin but enhanced by autophagy, while killing was accelerated by pneumolysin but inhibited by autophagy. Pneumococci induced extensive NET formation in neutrophils that was not influenced by pneumolysin but was critically dependent on autophagy. While pneumolysin did not affect NET formation, it had a potent inhibitory effect on bacterial trapping within NETs. These findings show a complex interaction between phagocytosis, killing, autophagy and NET formation in neutrophils following pneumococcal infection that contribute to host defence against this pathogen

    Influence of sex steroids on the viability and CD11b, CD18 and CD47 expression of blood neutrophils from dairy cows in the last month of gestation

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    In the period around parturition, cows experience an increased susceptibility for the development of Escherichia coli mastitis. This increased susceptibility has been correlated with a decreased functionality of neutrophils. In the current study, it is suggested that the decreased neutrophil functionality may be induced by the extensive alterations in sex steroid levels occurring around parturition. It was first hypothesized that 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone influence the viability, apoptosis and necrosis of blood neutrophils from cows in their last month of gestation. Subsequently, it was hypothesized that 17 beta-estradiol modulates the expression of CD11b, CD18 or CD47 thereby explaining its influence on the migration of bovine neutrophils. Neither 17 beta-estradiol nor progesterone significantly influenced viability, apoptosis or necrosis in spontaneous apoptosis conditions. However, when apoptosis was induced with TNF-alpha and gliotoxin, progesterone exerted a survival effect ( P < 0.05). In addition, 17 beta-estradiol treatment of bovine blood neutrophils significantly decreased the expression of CD47 ( P < 0.05) but not of CD11b or CD18. It can be concluded that 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone do not affect spontaneous apoptosis of bovine blood neutrophils while a survival effect was observed for progesterone on induced neutrophils apoptosis. Moreover, our results concerning the influence of 17 beta-estradiol on the CD11b, CD18 and CD47 expression extend previous demonstrations of the suppressive effect of 17 beta-estradiol on neutrophils migration and indicate that the altered expression of CD47 may contribute to this phenomenon

    p21-activated kinase (PAK) regulates cytoskeletal reorganization and directional migration in human neutrophils

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    Neutrophils serve as a first line of defense in innate immunity owing in part to their ability to rapidly migrate towards chemotactic factors derived from invading pathogens. As a migratory function, neutrophil chemotaxis is regulated by the Rho family of small GTPases. However, the mechanisms by which Rho GTPases orchestrate cytoskeletal dynamics in migrating neutrophils remain ill-defined. In this study, we characterized the role of p21-activated kinase (PAK) downstream of Rho GTPases in cytoskeletal remodeling and chemotactic processes of human neutrophils. We found that PAK activation occurred upon stimulation of neutrophils with f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), and PAK accumulated at the actin-rich leading edge of stimulated neutrophils, suggesting a role for PAK in Rac-dependent actin remodeling. Treatment with the pharmacological PAK inhibitor, PF3758309, abrogated the integrity of RhoA-mediated actomyosin contractility and surface adhesion. Moreover, inhibition of PAK activity impaired neutrophil morphological polarization and directional migration under a gradient of fMLP, and was associated with dysregulated Ca2+ signaling. These results suggest that PAK serves as an important effector of Rho-family GTPases in neutrophil cytoskeletal reorganization, and plays a key role in driving efficient directional migration of human neutrophils

    Impaired neutrophil directional chemotactic accuracy in chronic periodontitis patients

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    Aim: To investigate the chemotactic accuracy of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis compared with matched healthy controls, before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Material &#38; Methods: Neutrophils were isolated from patients and controls (n = 18) by density centrifugation. Using the Insall chamber and video microscopy, neutrophils were analysed for directional chemotaxis towards N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP (10 nM), or CXCL8 (200 ng/ml)]. Circular statistics were utilized for the analysis of cell movement. Results: Prior to treatment, neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis had significantly reduced speed, velocity and chemotactic accuracy compared to healthy controls for both chemoattractants. Following periodontal treatment, patient neutrophils continued to display reduced speed in response to both chemoattractants. However, velocity and accuracy were normalized for the weak chemoattractant CXCL8 while they remained significantly reduced for fMLP. Conclusions: Chronic periodontitis is associated with reduced neutrophil chemotaxis, and this is only partially restored by successful treatment. Dysfunctional neutrophil chemotaxis may predispose patients with periodontitis to their disease by increasing tissue transit times, thus exacerbating neutrophil-mediated collateral host tissue damage

    Gap-junctional coupling between neutrophils and endothelial cells

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    Communication between leukocytes and endothelial cells is crucial for inflammatory reactions. Paracrine cross-talk and outside-in signaling (via adhesion molecules) have been characterized as communication pathways to date. As leukocytes and endothelial cells express connexins, we considered intercellular communication via gap junctions an intriguing additional concept. We found that gap-junctional coupling between neutrophils and endothelium occurred in a time-dependent, bidirectional manner and was facilitated by adhesion. After blockade of connexins, transmigration of neutrophils through the endothelial layer was enhanced, and the barrier function of cell monolayers was reduced during transmigration. Tumor necrosis factor α decreased coupling. In the presence of connexins, transmigration of neutrophils did not alter permeability. Thus, neutrophils couple to endothelium via gap junctions, functionally modulating transmigration and leakiness. Gapjunctional coupling may be a novel way of leukocyte- endothelial communication

    Induced CNS expression of CXCL1 augments neurologic disease in a murine model of multiple sclerosis via enhanced neutrophil recruitment.

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    Increasing evidence points to an important role for neutrophils in participating in the pathogenesis of the human demyelinating disease MS and the animal model EAE. Therefore, a better understanding of the signals controlling migration of neutrophils as well as evaluating the role of these cells in demyelination is important to define cellular components that contribute to disease in MS patients. In this study, we examined the functional role of the chemokine CXCL1 in contributing to neuroinflammation and demyelination in EAE. Using transgenic mice in which expression of CXCL1 is under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter active within glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells, we have shown that sustained CXCL1 expression within the CNS increased the severity of clinical and histologic disease that was independent of an increase in the frequency of encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells. Rather, disease was associated with enhanced recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6G+ neutrophils into the spinal cord. Targeting neutrophils resulted in a reduction in demyelination arguing for a role for these cells in myelin damage. Collectively, these findings emphasize that CXCL1-mediated attraction of neutrophils into the CNS augments demyelination suggesting that this signaling pathway may offer new targets for therapeutic intervention

    Regulation of neutrophil senescence by microRNAs

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    Neutrophils are rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection, where they protect against invading pathogens. Neutrophil functions are limited by a process of neutrophil senescence, which renders the cells unable to respond to chemoattractants, carry out respiratory burst, or degranulate. In parallel, aged neutrophils also undergo spontaneous apoptosis, which can be delayed by factors such as GMCSF. This is then followed by their subsequent removal by phagocytic cells such as macrophages, thereby preventing unwanted inflammation and tissue damage. Neutrophils translate mRNA to make new proteins that are important in maintaining functional longevity. We therefore hypothesised that neutrophil functions and lifespan might be regulated by microRNAs expressed within human neutrophils. Total RNA from highly purified neutrophils was prepared and subjected to microarray analysis using the Agilent human miRNA microarray V3. We found human neutrophils expressed a selected repertoire of 148 microRNAs and that 6 of these were significantly upregulated after a period of 4 hours in culture, at a time when the contribution of apoptosis is negligible. A list of predicted targets for these 6 microRNAs was generated from http://mirecords.biolead.org and compared to mRNA species downregulated over time, revealing 83 genes targeted by at least 2 out of the 6 regulated microRNAs. Pathway analysis of genes containing binding sites for these microRNAs identified the following pathways: chemokine and cytokine signalling, Ras pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our data suggest that microRNAs may play a role in the regulation of neutrophil senescence and further suggest that manipulation of microRNAs might represent an area of future therapeutic interest for the treatment of inflammatory disease
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