7,133 research outputs found

    Perceived and objective neighborhood support for outside of school physical activity in South African children.

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    The neighborhood environment has the potential to influence children's participation in physical activity. However, children's outdoor play is controlled by parents to a great extent. This study aimed to investigate whether parents' perceptions of the neighborhood environment and the objectively measured neighborhood environment were associated with children's moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) outside of school hours; and to determine if these perceptions and objective measures of the neighborhood environment differ between high and low socio-economic status (SES) groups.In total, 258 parents of 9-11 year-old children, recruited from the South African sample of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), completed a questionnaire concerning the family and neighborhood environment. Objective measures of the environment were also obtained using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Children wore an Actigraph (GT3X+) accelerometer for 7 days to measure levels of MVPA. Multilevel regression models were used to determine the association between the neighborhood environment and MVPA out of school hours.Parents' perceptions of the neighborhood physical activity facilities were positively associated with children's MVPA before school (β = 1.50 ± 0.51, p = 0.003). Objective measures of neighborhood safety and traffic risk were associated with children's after-school MVPA (β = -2.72 ± 1.35, p = 0.044 and β = -2.63 ± 1.26, p = 0.038, respectively). These associations were significant in the low SES group (β = -3.38 ± 1.65, p = 0.040 and β = -3.76 ± 1.61, p = 0.020, respectively), but unrelated to MVPA in the high SES group.This study found that several of the objective measures of the neighborhood environment were significantly associated with children's outside-of-school MVPA, while most of the parents' perceptions of the neighborhood environment were unrelated

    The association between the parental perception of the physical neighborhood environment and children's location-specific physical activity

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    Background: The relationship between children's physical neighborhood environment and their physical activity, has been largely investigated. However in recent reviews, only a few significant and consistent direct associations between children's physical neighborhood environment and their physical activity were found. This is possibly due to the fact that the location where children's physical activity took place, is insufficiently specified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between parental perceived neighborhood characteristics and children's physical activity in clearly defined environments. Methods: Children (9-12 years; n = 606) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days. Parents completed the parental version of the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale questionnaire and reported on children's physical activity in specific locations: physical activity in nearby streets and on sidewalks, physical activity in public recreation spaces and physical activity in the garden. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted in MLwiN 2.30. Results: Children were more likely to be active in nearby streets and on sidewalks, if their parents perceived lower street connectivity (OR = 0.479; 95 % CI = 0.33 and 0.70), higher land use mix accessibility (OR = 1.704; 95 % CI = 1.25 and 2.33) and more crime safety (OR = 1.879; 95 % CI = 1.29 and 2.74). Children whose parents perceived higher presence of recreation facilities (OR = 1.618; CI = 1.23; 2.12) were more likely to be active in public recreation spaces. No environmental neighborhood variables were related to physical activity in the garden and overall moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Conclusions: The parental perceived physical neighborhood environment relates differently to physical activity in different locations. In order to develop effective interventions, it seems promising to further investigate the association between location-specific physical activity and specific neighborhood environmental correlates

    Transport disadvantage, social exclusion, and subjective well-being: The role of the neighborhood environment—evidence from Sydney, Australia

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    © 2018 Liang Ma, Jennifer L. Kent & Corinne Mulley. This study explores the effects of the neighborhood environment on transport disadvantage, social exclusion, personal health and subjective well-being (SWB) using survey data collected in Sydney, Australia. The data is analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM). Overall, our model supports the hypothesis that a walkable neighborhood environment helps to reduce transport disadvantage and increase social inclusion. Neighborhood density has negative effects on both physical and mental health, but a positive effect on SWB. Further, a cohesive neighborhood environment is associated with less transport disadvantage, more engagement in political and civic activities, more social help, better mental health and higher SWB. By contrast, perception of crime in a neighborhood is associated with more transport disadvantage and worse physical health. Neighborhood aesthetics and the neighborhood social environment have stronger effects on SWB than other neighborhood environment characteristics

    The Associations Between Park Environments and Park Use in Southern US Communities

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    Purpose To document park use and park and neighborhood environment characteristics in rural communities, and to examine the relationship between park characteristics and park use. Methods The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities measured use in 42 target areas across 6 community parks in May 2010 and October 2010. Direct observation instruments were used to assess park and neighborhood environment characteristics. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between the condition, number of amenities, and number of incivilities in a target area with target area use. Findings Ninety‐seven people were observed across all parks during May 2010 data collection and 116 people during October 2010 data collection. Low park quality index scores and unfavorable neighborhood environment characteristics were observed. There was a significant positive association between number of incivilities in a target area and target area use (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.09‐3.38; P = .03). Conclusions The number of people observed using the parks in this study was low, and it was considerably less than the number observed in other studies. The objective park and neighborhood environment characteristics documented in this study provide a more comprehensive understanding of parks than other studies. Further examining the complex relationship between park and neighborhood environment characteristics and park use is important, as it can inform park administrators and city planners of characteristics that are best able to attract visitors.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/108592/1/jrh12071.pd

    Neighborhood perceptions moderate the association between the family environment and children\u27s objectively assessed physical activity

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    This study aimed to investigate whether parents\u27 perceptions of the neighborhood environment moderate associations between the family environment and children\u27s moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) outside of school hours. In total, 929 parents of 10-12 year-old children completed a questionnaire concerning the family environment, MVPA levels, and the neighborhood environment. Children wore an Actigraph (AM7164-2.2C) accelerometer. Compared with neighborhood environment factors, the family environment was more frequently associated with children\u27s MVPA. Parental MVPA was positively associated with children\u27s MVPA, but only among children whose parents reported a high presence of sporting venues. Having more restrictive physical activity rules was negatively associated with children\u27s weekday MVPA in neighborhoods with high perceived stranger danger

    Built Environment and Preterm Birth

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    Background. Preterm birth affects approximately 500,000 babies a year in the United States. One out of nine babies born in the United States deliver before 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth can cause lifelong neurological problems, cerebral palsy, vision and hearing impairments, and developmental delay. The estimated $26 billion a year in preterm birth related costs are staggering to the health care system. Preterm-related causes of death in 2008 together accounted for 35% of all infant deaths. Methods. This paper is a review of the literature published (2006-2012) on the relationship between neighborhood environment and preterm birth. Results. Neighborhood deprivation and the neighborhood environment were associated with low-birth weight and preterm birth. Examples of neighborhood deprivation include economic deprivation, social disorder, and lack of health resources. Neighborhood environment can be described as neighborhood physical deterioration, violent crime, and group density. Conclusions. A significant association exists between the neighborhood environment and birth outcomes. More research is needed to explore interventions with a systems approach to promote healthy maternal behavior, reduce stress, and improve care for expecting mothers living in stressful neighborhood environments in order to reduce preterm births

    NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND THE FUNCTIONAL HEALTH OF OLDER ADULTS

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    With the growing number of older adults and, therefore, the increasing importance of disability as a public health outcome, it is important to better understand the causes and correlates of functional decline and disability in the elderly. Traditionally, most research on disability has focused on individual risk factors. However, a growing body of research is finding evidence of the role of the social and physical environment in health outcomes generally. But to date, limited research has examined the neighborhood environment as a causal factor in disability among older adults. This dissertation examines the influence of the socioeconomic and social characteristics of neighborhoods and municipalities in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania on individual functional status prevalence and change among a sample of adults 65 and older in the County. The research suggests that some effects of neighborhood social environments on functional status may be present, but are weak relative to individual risk factors. Neighborhood effects were not found for disability prevalence in this sample, but were found for change in function over a period of 20 months. The analysis indicates that neighborhoods with higher rates of serious crime are associated with declines in function. Also, neighborhoods with more concentrated social and economic disadvantages as well as those with more concentrated affluence were both associated with some improvement in function. The association of disadvantage with improvement in function requires further clarification. The analysis suggests that more sensitive measures of disability and function may be required to detect neighborhood effects. This type of research is of great public health relevance because it has the potential to suggest and inform a range of new community-based public health interventions to improve the functional health of the elderly

    Neighborhood Environment and Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

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    Falls present a major challenge to active aging, but the relationship between neighborhood factors and falls is poorly understood. This study examined the relationship between fall events and neighborhood factors, including neighborhood social cohesion (sense of belonging, trust, friendliness, and helpfulness) and physical environment (vandalism/graffiti, rubbish, vacant/deserted houses, and perceived safety walking home at night)

    Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria

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    Background: The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults. Methods: The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N = 386; female = 47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix - diversity, land use mix - access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Results: The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 -0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r = 0.10 -0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes. Conclusions: The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Nigerian adults and may be useful for evaluation of the built environment in Nigeria. Further adaptation and evaluation in other African countries is needed to create a version that could be used throughout the African region
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