1,458 research outputs found

    Recent results in nuclear astrophysics at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The neutron time of flight (n_TOF) facility at CERN is a spallation source characterized by a white neutron spectrum. The innovative features of the facility, in the two experimental areas, (20 m and 185 m), allow for an accurate determination of the neutron cross section for radioactive samples or for isotopes with small neutron capture cross section, of interest for Nuclear Astrophysics. The recent results obtained at n_TOF facility are presented

    Measurement of the 235U(n,f) cross section relative to the 6Li(n,t) and 10B(n,a) standards from thermal to 170 keV neutron energy range at n_TOF

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    The 235U(n,f) cross section was measured in a wide energy range at n_TOF relative to 6Li(n,t) and 10B(n,alpha), with high resolution and in a wide energy range, with a setup based on a stack of six samples and six silicon detectors placed in the neutron beam. This allowed us to make a direct comparison of the reaction yields under the same experimental conditions, and taking into account the forward/backward emission asymmetry. A hint of an anomaly in the 10÷30 keV neutron energy range had been previously observed in other experiments, indicating a cross section systematically lower by several percent relative to major evaluations. The present results indicate that the evaluated cross section in the 9÷18 keV neutron energy range is indeed overestimated, both in the recent updates of ENDF/B-VIII.0 and of the IAEA reference data. Furthermore, these new high-resolution data confirm the existence of resonance-like structures in the keV neutron energy region. The new, high accuracy results here reported may lead to a reduction of the uncertainty in the 1÷100 keV neutron energy region. Finally, the present data provide additional confidence on the recently re-evaluated cross section integral between 7.8 and 11 eV.Preprin

    Present Status and Future Programs of the n_TOF Experiment

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    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any noncommercial medium, provided the original work is properly citedThe neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, Switzerland, operational since 2001, delivers neutrons using the Proton Synchrotron (PS) 20 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a lead spallation target. The facility combines a very high instantaneous neutron flux, an excellent time of flight resolution due to the distance between the experimental area and the production target (185 meters), a low intrinsic background and a wide range of neutron energies, from thermal to GeV neutrons. These characteristics provide a unique possibility to perform neutron-induced capture and fission cross-section measurements for applications in nuclear astrophysics and in nuclear reactor technology.The most relevant measurements performed up to now and foreseen for the future will be presented in this contribution. The overall efficiency of the experimental program and the range of possible measurements achievable with the construction of a second experimental area (EAR-2), vertically located 20 m on top of the n_TOF spallation target, might offer a substantial improvement in measurement sensitivities. A feasibility study of the possible realisation of the installation extension will be also presented

    Towards the high-accuracy determination of the 238U fission cross section at the threshold region at CERN - N-TOF

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    The 238U fission cross section is an international standard beyond 2 MeV where the fission plateau starts. However, due to its importance in fission reactors, this cross-section should be very accurately known also in the threshold region below 2 MeV. The 238U fission cross section has been measured relative to the 235U fission cross section at CERN - n-TOF with different detection systems. These datasets have been collected and suitably combined to increase the counting statistics in the threshold region from about 300 keV up to 3 MeV. The results are compared with other experimental data, evaluated libraries, and the IAEA standards

    Preparation and characterization of 33-S samples for 33-S(n,alpha)30-Si cross-section measurements at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    Thin 33S samples for the study of the 33S(n,a)30Si cross-section at the n_TOF facility at CERN were made by thermal evaporation of 33S powder onto a dedicated substrate made of kapton covered with thin layers of copper, chromium and titanium. This method has provided for the first time bare sulfur samples a few centimeters in diameter. The samples have shown an excellent adherence with no mass loss after few years and no sublimation in vacuum at room temperature. The determination of the mass thickness of 33S has been performed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The samples have been successfully tested under neutron irradiation.Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad de España-FPA2013-47327- C2-1-R, FPA2014-53290-C2-2-P, FPA2016-77689-C2-1-RJunta de Andalucía-P11-FQM-8229Ministerio de Economía y Empresa de España (Fondos FEDER)-FIS2015-69941-C2-1-PAECC (Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer)-PS16163811POR

    Radiative capture on 242Pu for MOX fuel reactors

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    Proposal: Radiative capture on 242Pu for MOX fuel reactorsThe use of MOX fuel (mixed-oxide fuel made of UO2 and PuO2) in nuclear reactors allows substituting a large fraction of the enriched Uranium by Plutonium reprocessed from spent fuel. Indeed around 66% of the plutonium from spent fuel is made of 239Pu and 241Pu, which are fissile in thermal reactors. A typical reactor of this type uses a fuel with 7% reprocessed Pu and 93% depleted U, thus profiting from both the spent fuel and the remaining 238U following the 235U enrichment. With the use of such new fuel compositions rich in Pu the better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes becomes very important. This is clearly stated in the recent OECD NEA’s “High Priority Request List” and in the WPEC-26 “Uncertainty and target accuracy assessment for innovative systems using recent covariance data evaluations” report. In particular, a new series of cross section evaluations have been recently carried out jointly by the European (JEFF) and United States (ENDF) nuclear data agencies. As the new evaluations on 240Pu and 241Am have been already completed, 242Pu is the next to be reevaluated, and the scarceness of capture data (only two TOF measurements from 1973 and 1976 are available and disagree with each other) calls for a new time-of flight capture cross section measurement. This will be the first measurement in 40 years and, with the use of more advanced techniques, shall provide a more reliable and accurate result. We propose to measure the capture cross section of 242Pu in the region from thermal up to at least 60 keV, aiming for a high energy limit of 500 keV. The experiment would make use of an array of 4 low neutron sensitivity C6D6 detectors and be carried out at the n_TOF EAR-1 (185 m flight path) measuring station. Compared to the current uncertainty of 35%, this measurement aims at an improved accuracy between 7% and 12% depending on the energy region.Preprin

    Neutron cross-sections for advanced nuclear systems : The n-TOF project at CERN

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    © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly citedThe study of neutron-induced reactions is of high relevance in a wide variety of fields, ranging from stellar nucleosynthesis and fundamental nuclear physics to applications of nuclear technology. In nuclear energy, high accuracy neutron data are needed for the development of Generation IV fast reactors and accelerator driven systems, these last aimed specifically at nuclear waste incineration, as well as for research on innovative fuel cycles. In this context, a high luminosity Neutron Time Of Flight facility, n-TOF, is operating at CERN since more than a decade, with the aim of providing new, high accuracy and high resolution neutron cross-sections. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, a rich experimental program relevant to nuclear technology has been carried out so far. The program will be further expanded in the near future, thanks in particular to a new high-flux experimental area, now under construction.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Measurement of the 70Ge(n,γ) cross section up to 300 keV at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    Neutron capture data on intermediate mass nuclei are of key importance to nucleosynthesis in the weak component of the slow neutron capture processes, which occurs in massive stars. The (n,γ) cross section on 70Ge, which is mainly produced in the s process, was measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were determined up to 40 keV neutron energy and average cross sections up to 300 keV. Stellar cross sections were calculated from kT =5 keV tokT =100 keV and are in very good agreement with a previous measurement by Walter and Beer (1985) and recent evaluations. Average cross sectionsareinagreementwithWalterandBeer(1985)overmostoftheneutronenergyrangecovered,whilethey aresystematicallysmallerforneutronenergiesabove150keV.Wehavecalculatedisotopicabundancesproduced in s-process environments in a 25 solar mass star for two initial metallicities (below solar and close to solar). While the low metallicity model reproduces best the solar system germanium isotopic abundances, the close to solar model shows a good global match to solar system abundances in the range of mass numbers A=60–80.Austrian Science Fund J3503Adolf Messer Foundation ST/M006085/1European Research Council ERC2015-StGCroatian Science Foundation IP-2018-01-857

    High-accuracy determination of the U 238 / U 235 fission cross section ratio up to ≈1 GeV at n-TOF at CERN

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    Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOIThe U238 to U235 fission cross section ratio has been determined at n-TOF up to ≈1 GeV, with two different detection systems, in different geometrical configurations. A total of four datasets has been collected and compared. They are all consistent to each other within the relative systematic uncertainty of 3-4%. The data collected at n-TOF have been suitably combined to yield a unique fission cross section ratio as a function of neutron energy. The result confirms current evaluations up to 200 MeV. Good agreement is also observed with theoretical calculations based on the INCL++/Gemini++ combination up to the highest measured energy. The n-TOF results may help solve a long-standing discrepancy between the two most important experimental datasets available so far above 20 MeV, while extending the neutron energy range for the first time up to ≈1 GeV.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Neutron capture cross section measurements of 238U, 241Am and 243Am at n_TOF

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    Proposal: Neutron capture cross section measurements of 238U, 241Am and 243Am at n_TOFThe increase of the world energy demand and the need of low carbon energy sources have triggered the renaissance and/or enhancement of nuclear energy in many countries. Fundamental nuclear physics can contribute in a practical way to the sustainability and safety of the nuclear energy production and the management of the nuclear waste. There exists a series of recent studies which address the most relevant isotopes, decay data, nuclear reaction channels and energy ranges which have to be investigated in more detail for improving the design of different advanced nuclear systems [1] and nuclear fuel cycles [2]. In this proposal, we aim at the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of 238U, 241Am and 243Am. All three isotopes are listed in the NEA High Priority Request List [37], are recommended for measurements [1] and play an important role in the nuclear energy production and fuel cycle scenarios. The measurements will provide as well valuable nuclear structure data necessary for the improvement of nuclear models and the statistical interpretation of the nuclear propertiesPostprint (author's final draft
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