1,722 research outputs found

    Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups in Southeastern Europe: Croatians, Bosnians and Herzegovinianas, Serbians, Macedonians and Macedonian Romani

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    Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were analyzed in of 1,610 randomly chosen adult men from 11 different regions from southeastern Europe (Croatians, Bosnians and Herzegovinians, Serbians, Macedonians and Macedonian Romani). MtDNA HVS-I region together with RFLP sites diagnostic for main Euroasian and African mtDNA haplogroups were typed to determine haplogroup frequency distribution. The most frequent haplogroup in studied populations was H with the exception of Macedonian Romani among whom the most frequent were South Asian (Indian) specific variants of haplogroup M. The multidimensional scaling plot showed two clusters of populations and two outliers (Macedonian Romani and the most distant from mainland Croatian island of Kor─Źula). The first cluster was formed by populations from three Croatian islands (Hvar, Krk and Bra─Ź) and the second cluster was formed by Macedonians, Serbians, Croatians from mainland and coast, Herzegovinians, Bosnians, Slovenians, Poles and Russians. The present analysis does not address a precise evaluation of phylogenetic relations of studied populations although some conclusions about historical migrations could be noticed. More extended conclusions will be possible after deeper phylogenetic and statistical analyses

    Assessment of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration by a Rapid Luminescent Method

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    The adulteration of virgin olive oil with hazelnut oil is a common fraud in the food industry, which makes mandatory the development of accurate methods to guarantee the authenticity and traceability of virgin olive oil. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of a rapid luminescent method to characterize edible oils and to detect adulterations among them. A regression model based on five luminescent frequencies related to minor oil components was designed and validated, providing excellent performance for the detection of virgin olive oil adulteration

    A Functional Ecological Comparison of three Sponge Species from the Lower Florida Keys

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    The shallow, tidal flats off the islands of the lower Florida Keys represent a harsh environment for sessile marine invertebrates. This habitat is home to three taxonomically distinct sponge species that share similar rope morphologies: Cliona varians forma varians, Ircinia variabilis, and Neopetrosia subtriangularis. Despite sharing a habitat, these three species differ in their symbiont regime, with C. varians hosting dinoflagellate photosymbionts, and I. variabilis and N. subtriangularis hosting cyanobacterial photosymbionts. We conducted experiments to measure other ecological differences between these species. The sponges were all assayed for pumping rates using dye-video analysis and tissue samples were taken to compare the composition and functional genes of their microbiomes. The results indicated that N. subtriangularis had a significantly higher pumping rate than the other species. The microbiomes of the species varied, and the microbiome functional gene screening provided evidence that C. varians forma varians hosts nitrogen fixing bacteria, that I. variabilis hosts methane metabolizing bacteria, and that N. subtriangularis hosts nitric oxide reducing bacteria. More work is currently underway to examine the metabolism of these sponges, giving us insight into the unique ecology of this harsh habitat

    Metabarcoding Analyses of Gut Microbiome Compositions in Red Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens, Swainson, 1822) Fed Different Macroalgal Diets

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    Growth and gut microbiome composition of Red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, fed different diets were compared after six months. The diet treatments were starvation and three fresh macroalgal diets (Macrocystis pyrifera, Palmaria mollis, and Ulva lactuca). Abalone shell length and wet in-shell mass were measured for growth comparisons across treatments. Contents of the buccal cavity, intestine, and stomach, as well as seawater and macroalgal tissue samples, were also collected monthly for 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Shell length and wet in-shell mass showed significant difference among treatments (two-way ANOVA test, F(2,74)=4.26, p=0.019) and months (two-way ANOVA test, F(4,74)=15.54, p\u3c0.0001). The metabarcoding assay detected 17981 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from all samples. Gut microbiome composition was significantly different across treatments at class (PERMANOVA test, F(3,203)=18.02, p=0.001) and genus (PERMANOVA test, F(3,203)=15.23, p=0.001) levels at a rarefaction depth of 13065 reads per sample. Gut microbiome composition was significantly different in the 3 gut regions at class (PERMANOVA test, F(2,203)=91.66, p=0.001) and genus (PERMANOVA test, F(2,203)=64.08, p=0.001) levels. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were dominant taxa in most of the samples. SIMPER dissimilarity analysis showed that microbiomes similarities among diets ranged from 44.33% to 47.67% at the class level. Microbiome composition was more similar (57.33%) between the stomach and intestine samples than between mouth and stomach samples (40.61%) and between mouth and intestine samples (47.95%) at the class level. To date, this is the first study comparing gut microbiome compositions in red abalone under various macroalgal diets using Illumina sequencing technique. This work will enhance our understanding of the gut microbiome composition in red abalone which is essential for abalone farmers to support the production of quality juveniles for aquaculture and restoration purposes

    Interpreting Predator ÔÇô Prey Interactions in Cayuga Lake Fishes Using Fatty Acid Signature Analysis

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    Fatty acids are transferred from prey to predator and can be used to assess trophic interactions in aquatic food webs. Therefore, to better understand Cayuga Lake food web dynamics, fatty acid signatures (FAS) of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were compared to two major prey species in the lake; alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). The main objectives of the study were to assess FAS dissimilarity between prey species and then compare each prey FAS to lake trout FAS. Fish were collected in 2014 and 2015 using seine nets (alewife, n = 255 and round goby, n = 448) and gillnets (lake trout, n = 60). Mean total lipid content in alewife was significantly higher than round goby (5.7 vs. 3.1%, Mann-Whitney U test = 19.666, df = 1, P \u3c 0.05). The FAS of both prey species differed significantly (ANOSIM, overall R = 0.594; P \u3c 0.05); concentration of 18:1n-9 was highest in alewife, whereas 22:6n-3, 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, and 18:3n-3 concentrations were highest in round goby. Intraspecies (spatio-temporal) FAS variations were found for each prey species, but these variations were less significant than those observed between species. Although round goby in lake trout diet appeared to increase in 2015, comparisons of FAS of lake trout and both prey species suggest that lake trout diet is composed primarily of alewife

    A high throughput genotyping approach reveals distinctive autosomal genetic signatures for European and Near Eastern wild boar

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    The lack of a Near Eastern genetic signature in modern European porcine breeds indicates that, although domestic pigs from the Fertile Crescent entered Europe during the Neolithic, they were completely replaced by their European counterparts in a short window of time. Whilst the absence of such genetic signature has been convincingly demonstrated at the mitochondrial level, variation at the autosomal genomes of European and Near Eastern Sus scrofa has not been compared yet. Herewith, we have explored the genetic relationships among 43 wild boar from Europe (N = 21), Near East (N = 19) and Korea (N = 3), and 40 Iberian (N = 16), Canarian (N = 4) and Mangalitza (N = 20) pigs by using a high throughput SNP genotyping platform. After data filtering, 37,167 autosomal SNPs were used to perform population genetics analyses. A multidimensional scaling plot based on genome-wide identity-by-state pairwise distances inferred with PLINK showed that Near Eastern and European wild boar populations are genetically differentiated. Maximum likelihood trees built with TreeMix supported this conclusion i.e. an early population split between Near Eastern and European Sus scrofa was observed. Moreover, analysis of the data with Structure evidenced that the sampled Iberian, Canarian and Mangalitza pigs did not carry any autosomal signature compatible with a Near Eastern ancestry, a finding that agrees well with previous mitochondrial studies
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