1,315 research outputs found

    Rewarding my Self. The role of Self Esteem and Self Determination in Motivation Crowding Theory

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    The paper aims to reconcile different explanations (and consequences) of the motivation crowding theory in a unique theoretical framework where the locus of control is introduced in a one period maximisation problem and the intrinsic motivation is assumed as an exogenous psychological attitude. The analysis is based on the distinction among different types of objectives of the intrinsic motivation. For each type of objective, the different role of self esteem and self determination mechanisms determine different conditions for crowding out of intrinsic motivation, depending on the self determination sensitivity, its impact on the motivated good and the individual belief about one’s own self.intrinsic motivation, crowding out, self esteem, self determination

    Rewarding my Self. Self Esteem, Self Determination and Motivations

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    The paper presents a model where the self esteem and the self determination mechanisms are explicitly modelled in order to explain how they affect the intrinsic motivation and its impact on individual choices. The aim is to reconcile different explanations (and consequences) of the motivation crowding theory in a unique theoretical framework where the locus of control is introduced in a one period maximisation problem and the intrinsic motivation is assumed as an exogenous psychological attitude. The analysis is based on the different effect of the self esteem mechanism on intrinsic motivation input oriented or output oriented. Results show that crowding out of intrinsic motivation depends on the self determination sensitivity and the individual belief about one’s own self.intrinsic motivation; crowding out; self-esteem; self-determination.

    Motivation crowding theory: A survey of empirical evidence.

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    Abstract: The motivation crowding effect suggests that an external intervention via monetary incentives or punishments may undermine (and under different indentifiable conditions strengthen) intrinsic motivation. As of today, the theoretical possibility of crowding effects is widely accepted among economists. Many of them, however, have been critical about its empirical relevance. This survey shows that such scepticism is unwarranted and that there exists indeed compelling empirical evidence for the existence of crowding out and crowding in. It is based on circumstantial insight, laboratory studies by both psychologists and economists as well as field research by econometric studies. The presented pieces of evidence refer to a wide variety of areas of the economy and society and have been collected for many different countries and periods. Crowding effects thus are an empirically relevant phenomenon, which can, in specific cases, even dominate the traditional relative price effect

    Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

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    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours per week of individuals with low intrinsic motivation. Thus, a crowding in effect on low intrinsic motivation might emerge for continuative volunteers.Monetary rewards, intrinsic motivations, volunteer labour supply

    Social values and the corruption argument against financial incentives for healthy behaviour

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    Footnotes Funding This research was funded by the Centre for the Study of Incentives in Health, from a strategic award from the Wellcome Trust Biomedical Ethics Programme (PI Marteau: 086031/Z/08/Z).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Does monetary punishment crowd out pro-social motivation? The case of hospital bed-blocking

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    We study whether the use of explicit monetary incentives might be counter-productive. In particular, we focus on the effect of fining owners of long-term care institutions who prolong length of stay at hospitals. We outline a simple theoretical model, based on motivational crowding theory, deriving the conditions for explicit monetary incentives to have potentially counterproductive effects. In the empirical part, we exploit a natural experiment involving changes in the catchments areas of two large Norwegian hospitals. We find that bed-blocking is reduced when transferring long-term care providers from a hospital using monetary fines to prevent bed-blocking to a hospital not relying on this incentive scheme, and vice versa. We interpret these results as examples of monetary incentives crowding out agents’ intrinsic motivation, leading to a reduction in effort.Motivation crowding; Intrinsic motivation; Monetary punishment; Hospital bed blocking

    No Longer Without a Reward: Do Digital Rewards Crowd Out Intrinsic Motivation of Young Children?

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    In the learning journey of young children, rewards are ubiquitous. Yet, psychologists and behavioral economists question the success of rewards and even claim that they displace intrinsic motivation, a phenomenon referred to as motivation crowding out. While information systems can help children learn everyday tasks, it is unclear if and when digital rewards produce motivation crowding out. Theoretically sound, empirical field studies on this topic are lacking and existing information system research on motivation crowding is limited to specific domains, not covering children’s behavior. Therefore, we aim to elicit how digital rewards influence an everyday health behavior that children learn in kindergarten – handwashing – and the underlying intrinsic motivation. We conduct a randomized controlled trial that is conceptualized in this paper. Our results will extend motivation crowding theory in the context of young children and inform the design of digital behavior change interventions

    Agency and Anxiety

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    In this paper, we introduce the psychological concept of anxiety into agency theory. An important benchmark in the anxiety literature is the inverted-U hypothesis which states that an increase in anxiety improves performance when anxiety is low but reduces it when anxiety is high. We consider a version of the Holmstrom-Milgrom linear principal-agent model where the agent conforms to the inverted-U hypothesis and investigate the nature of the optimal linear contract. We find that although high-powered incentives can be demotivational, a profit-maximizing principal never offers them. In contrast, the principal may optimally engage in a demotivational level of monitoring. Moreover, since risk can be motivational, the principal may refrain from eliminating it even when monitoring is costless. Indeed, the principal may even add pure noise to the contract in order to motivate the agent, contradicting the informativeness principle. Finally, incentives and monitoring can be strategic substitutes or complements in our model.

    The Crowding Effect Of Rewards On Knowledge-Sharing Behavior In Virtual Communities

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    Knowledge sharing is an important activity in virtual communities (VC). Recently, some researchers have explored various motivators that may influence VC members\u27 contribution. Although providing rewards has been found to significantly motivate employees to share knowledge in organizational research, it also has been found to diminish intrinsic motivation and lead to reduced efforts in some cases psychology literature. The phenomenon that external intervention (e.g. monetary incentives or punishments) may either undermine (crowd-out) or enhance (crowd-in) intrinsic motivation is called the motivation crowding effect. Based on the motivation crowding theory, this study investigated the moderating effect of monetary incentives on the relationships of motivations and members\u27 intention for knowledge sharing. The research framework includes two motivational factors, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, for knowledge sharing in virtual communities. The model was tested using a field experiment on 204 VC members of two different virtual communities. The results confirmed the existence of the crowding effect. That is, the relationship between intrinsic motivation and knowledge sharing intention was significantly lowered after the treatment of monetary incentives. The findings suggest that VC managers should carefully consider providing monetary rewards in promoting their websites because monetary incentives can potentially affect the knowledge-sharing behavior of VC members

    The Impact of Management Control on Employee Motivation and Performance in the Public Sector

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    This study examines the relations among various types of management control, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and performance in the public sector. We draw on motivation crowding theory and self-determination theory to argue that four different types of management control (i.e. personnel, cultural, action, and results control) are likely to have an influence on intrinsic motivation and/or extrinsic motivation. We test a structural equation model using survey data from 105 similar departments in the public sector. Our findings indicate that the use of personnel and cultural controls is positively associated with employees’ intrinsic motivation, and that the use of results controls is positively associated with employees’ extrinsic motivation. Moreover, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are positively associated with performance. Taken together, these findings support the idea advocated by New Public Management proponents that results control can enhance employee motivation and performance in the public sector. However, the findings also highlight an essential nuance; in addition to results control, personnel and cultural controls are also important, as they enhance intrinsic motivation and performance. This implies that a sole focus on results control is too narrow and can lead to suboptimal levels of employee motivation and performance in the public sector
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