17,810 research outputs found

    Micro-RNA-1 is decreased by hypoxia and contributes to the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling via regulation of sphingosine kinase 1

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    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) upregulation is associated with pathologic pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the mechanisms controlling its expression are undefined. In this study, we sought to characterize the regulation of SphK1 expression by micro-RNAs (miRs). In silico analysis of the SphK1 3'-untranslated region identified several putative miR binding sites, with miR-1-3p (miR-1) being the most highly predicted target. Therefore we further investigated the role of miR-1 in modulating SphK1 expression and characterized its effects on the phenotype of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and the development of experimental pulmonary hypertension in vivo. Our results demonstrate that miR-1 is downregulated by hypoxia in PASMCs and can directly inhibit SphK1 expression. Overexpression of miR-1 in human PASMCs inhibits basal and hypoxia-induced proliferation and migration. Human PASMCs isolated from PAH patients exhibit reduced miR-1 expression. We also demonstrate that miR-1 is downregulated in mouse lung tissues during experimental hypoxia-mediated pulmonary hypertension (HPH), consistent with upregulation of SphK1. Furthermore, administration of miR-1 mimics in vivo prevented the development of HPH in mice and attenuated induction of SphK1 in PASMCs. These data reveal the importance of miR-1 in regulating SphK1 expression during hypoxia in PASMCs. A pivotal role is played by miR-1 in pulmonary vascular remodeling, including PASMC proliferation and migration, and its overexpression protects from the development of HPH in vivo. These studies improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension

    Micro-RNA, a Solution for Understanding Depression

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    Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder that causes sadness and loss of interest. This affects how one may feel, think, or behave which impact their physical and mental state. People who have been diagnosed with this disorder find themselves losing interest in things they once loved. In the United States there are 16.1 million Americans diagnosed with MDD. This disorder is more common in individuals who have had it in their families which has resulted in the interest in how different genes impact MDD. Micro-RNA has been researched and discovered to have a correlation with MDD. These Micro-RNA\u27s show an adaptive response to stress leading to either a resilience or development of this disorder. Once more is understood on effects that these Micro-RNA\u27s have on different genetic makeup, medication can be developed along with different therapies to help with different Micro-RNA. This could also help find and treat individuals who are more susceptible to this disorder before it proliferates

    Micro-RNA regulation of hepatic drug metabolism : age-related changes in micro-RNA expression and genetic variants in micro-RNA target sites

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    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)Developmental changes in the liver significantly impact drug disposition. Due to the emergence of microRNAs as important regulators of drug disposition, we hypothesize that age-dependent change in microRNA expression and genetic variants in microRNA target sites contribute to variability in drug disposition. In human liver tissues, expression of 533 microRNAs and over 14,000 genes were measured. In all, 114 microRNAs were upregulated and 72 downregulated from fetal to pediatric, and 2 and 3, respectively, from pediatric to adult. Among these microRNAs, 99 microRNA-mRNA interactions were predicted or have previously been validated to target drug disposition genes and over 1,000 significant negative correlations were observed between miRNA-mRNA pairs. We validated these interactions using various cell culture models. Genetic variants in the promoter and coding regions of drug disposition genes have also been shown to alter enzyme expression and/or activity. However, these variants do not account for all variability in enzyme activity. Emerging evidence has shown that variants in the 3’UTR may explain variable drug response by altering microRNA regulation. Five 3’UTR variants were associated with significantly altered CYP2B6 activity in healthy human volunteers. The rs70950385 (AG>CA) variant was associated with decreased CYP2B6 activity among normal metabolizers. In vitro luciferase assays confirmed that the CA allele altered miR 1275 targeting of CYP2B6 mRNA. Due to the large number of 3’UTR variants predicted to alter microRNA regulation, a high-throughput method, PASSPORT-seq, was developed to test over 100 3’UTR variants simultaneously in different cell lines. Thirty-eight variants resulted in FDR-significant altered expression between wild-type and variant sequences. Our data suggest a mechanism for the marked changes in hepatic gene expression between the fetal and pediatric developmental periods, support a role for these age dependent microRNAs in regulating drug disposition, and provide strong evidence that 3’UTR variants are also an important source of variability in drug disposition

    An observation of circular RNAs in bacterial RNA-seq data

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    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNA with an important role in micro RNA (miRNA) regulation recently discovered in Human and various other eukaryotes as well as in archaea. Here, we have analyzed RNA-seq data obtained from {\it Enterococcus faecalis} and {\it Escherichia coli} in a way similar to previous studies performed on eukaryotes. We report observations of circRNAs in RNA-seq data that are reproducible across multiple experiments performed with different protocols or growth conditions

    Mathematical and computational modelling of post-transcriptional gene relation by micro-RNA

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    Mathematical models and computational simulations have proved valuable in many areas of cell biology, including gene regulatory networks. When properly calibrated against experimental data, kinetic models can be used to describe how the concentrations of key species evolve over time. A reliable model allows ‘what if’ scenarios to be investigated quantitatively in silico, and also provides a means to compare competing hypotheses about the underlying biological mechanisms at work. Moreover, models at different scales of resolution can be merged into a bigger picture ‘systems’ level description. In the case where gene regulation is post-transcriptionally affected by microRNAs, biological understanding and experimental techniques have only recently matured to the extent that we can postulate and test kinetic models. In this chapter, we summarize some recent work that takes the first steps towards realistic modelling, focusing on the contributions of the authors. Using a deterministic ordinary differential equation framework, we derive models from first principles and test them for consistency with recent experimental data, including microarray and mass spectrometry measurements. We first consider typical mis-expression experiments, where the microRNA level is instantaneously boosted or depleted and thereafter remains at a fixed level. We then move on to a more general setting where the microRNA is simply treated as another species in the reaction network, with microRNA-mRNA binding forming the basis for the post-transcriptional repression. We include some speculative comments about the potential for kinetic modelling to contribute to the more widespread sequence and network based approaches in the qualitative investigation of microRNA based gene regulation. We also consider what new combinations of experimental data will be needed in order to make sense of the increased systems-level complexity introduced by microRNAs