23,744 research outputs found

    The cannabinoid receptor type 2 as mediator of mesenchymal stromal cell immunosuppressive properties

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    Mesenchymal stromal cells are non-hematopoietic, multipotent progenitor cells producing cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix proteins that support hematopoietic stem cell survival and engraftment, influence immune effector cell development, maturation, and function, and inhibit alloreactive T-cell responses. The immunosuppressive properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells have attracted much attention from immunologists, stem cell biologists and clinicians. Recently, the presence of the endocannabinoid system in hematopoietic and neural stem cells has been demonstrated. Endocannabinoids, mainly acting through the cannabinoid receptor subtype 2, are able to modulate cytokine release and to act as immunosuppressant when added to activated T lymphocytes. In the present study, we have investigated, through a multidisciplinary approach, the involvement of the endocannabinoids in migration, viability and cytokine release of human mesenchymal stromal cells. We show, for the first time, that cultures of human mesenchymal stromal cells express all of the components of the endocannabinoid system, suggesting a potential role for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a mediator of anti-inflammatory properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as of their survival pathways and their capability to home and migrate towards endocannabinoid sources

    Gut mesenchymal stromal cells in immunity

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    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), first found in bone marrow (BM), are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal) or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal). In Crohn’s disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFN) is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn’s disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer

    Wharton’s jelly or bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells improve cardiac function following myocardial infarction for more than 32 weeks in a rat model: a preliminary report

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    The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) following myocardial infarction (MI) is small. This may be due to differences in cellular sources and donor age, route of administration, in vitro cellular manipulations and the short time course of follow up in many animal studies. Here, we compared MSCs from two different sources (adult bone marrow or Wharton’s jelly from umbilical cord) for their long-term therapeutic effect following MI in a rat model to evaluate the effect of donor age. MSCs (or control infusions) were given intravenously 24-48 hr after myocardial ischemia (MI) induced by coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function was assessed by ultrasound at time points starting from before MSC infusion through 68 weeks after MI. A significant improvement in ejection fraction was seen in animals that received MSCs in time points 25 to 31 wks after treatment (p <0.01). These results support previous work that show that MSCs can cause improvement in cardiac function and extend that work by showing that the beneficial effects are durable. To investigate MSCs’ cardiac differentiation potential, Wharton’s jelly MSCs were co-cultured with fetal or adult bone-derived marrow MSCs. When Wharton’s jelly MSCs were co-cultured with fetal MSCs, and not with adult MSCs, myotube structures were observed in two-three days and spontaneous contractions (beating) cells were observed in fiveseven days. The beating structures formed a functional syncytium indicated by coordinated contractions (beating) of independent nodes. Taken together, these results suggest that MSCs given 24-48 hr after MI have a significant and durable beneficial effect more than 25 weeks after MI and that MSC treatment can home to damaged tissue and improve heart function after intravenous infusion 24-48 hrs after MI, and that WJCs may be a useful source for off-the-shelf cellular therapy for MI

    Rapid prototyped porous nickel-titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes

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    While calcium phosphate–based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel–titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel–titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel–titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel–titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel–titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel–titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold’s pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel–titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used titanium

    Characterization and profiling of immunomodulatory genes of equine mesenchymal stromal cells from non-invasive sources

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    Introduction: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their promising capabilities in regenerative medicine. Although bone marrow is the best-known source for isolating equine MSCs, non-invasive alternative sources such as umbilical cord blood (UCB), umbilical cord matrix (UCM), and peripheral blood (PB) have also been reported. Methods: Equine MSCs from three non-invasive alternative sources were isolated from six individual mares (PB) and their foals (UCB and UCM) at parturition. To minimize inter-horse variability, the samples from the three sources were matched within the same mare and for UCB and UCM even within the same foal from that specific mare. The following parameters were analyzed: (i) success rate of isolation, (ii) proliferation capacity, (iii) tri-lineage differentiation ability, (iv) immunophenotypical protein, and (v) immunomodulatory mRNA profiles. Linear regression models were fit to determine the association between the source of MSCs (UCB, UCM, PB) and (i) the moment of first observation, (ii) the moment of first passage, (iii) cell proliferation data, (iv) the expression of markers related to cell immunogenicity, and (v) the mRNA profile of immunomodulatory factors, except for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as no normal distribution could be obtained for the latter variable. To evaluate the association between the source of MSCs and the mRNA expression of HGF, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed instead. Results: While equine MSCs could be isolated from all the UCB and PB samples, isolation from UCM was successful in only two samples because of contamination issues. Proliferation data showed that equine MSCs from all three sources could be easily expanded, although UCB-derived MSCs appeared significantly faster in culture than PB- or UCM-derived MSCs. Equine MSCs from both UCB and PB could be differentiated toward the osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic lineage, in contrast to UCM-derived MSCs in which only chondro-and adipogenic differentiation could be confirmed. Regardless of the source, equine MSCs expressed the immunomodulatory genes CD40, CD80, HGF, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta). In contrast, no mRNA expression was found for CD86, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). Conclusions: Whereas UCM seems less feasible because of the high contamination risks and low isolation success rates, UCB seems a promising alternative MSC source, especially when considering allogeneic MSC use

    Allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells overexpressing mutant human Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α) in an ovine model of acute myocardial infarction

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    Background-Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) are cardioprotective in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) because of release of paracrine angiogenic and prosurvival factors. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α), rapidly degraded during normoxia, is stabilized during ischemia and upregulates various cardioprotective genes. We hypothesized that BMMSCs engineered to overexpress mutant, oxygen-resistant HIF1-α would confer greater cardioprotection than nontransfected BMMSCs in sheep with AMI. Methods and Results-Allogeneic BMMSCs transfected with a minicircle vector encoding mutant HIF1-α (BMMSC-HIF) were injected in the peri-infarct of sheep (n=6) undergoing coronary occlusion. Over 2 months, infarct volume measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging decreased by 71.7±1.3% (P < 0.001), and left ventricular (LV) percent ejection fraction (%EF) increased near 2-fold (P < 0.001) in the presence of markedly decreased end-systolic volume. Sheep receiving nontransfected BMMSCs (BMMSC; n=6) displayed less infarct size limitation and percent LVEF improvement, whereas in placebo-treated animals (n=6), neither parameters changed over time. HIF1-α-transfected BMMSCs (BMMSC-HIF) induced angio-/arteriogenesis and decreased apoptosis by HIF1-mediated overexpression of erythropoietin, inducible nitrous oxide synthase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiopoietin-1. Cell tracking using paramagnetic iron nanoparticles in 12 additional sheep revealed enhanced long-term retention of BMMSC-HIF. Conclusions-Intramyocardial delivery of BMMSC-HIF reduced infarct size and improved LV systolic performance compared to BMMSC, attributed to increased neovascularization and cardioprotective effects induced by HIF1-mediated overexpression of paracrine factors and enhanced retention of injected cells. Given the safety of the minicircle vector and the feasibility of BMMSCs for allogeneic application, this treatment may be potentially useful in the clinic.Fil: Hnatiuk, Anna. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería. Fundación Favaloro. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería; ArgentinaFil: Ong, Sang-Ging. Stanford University School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Olea, Fernanda Daniela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería. Fundación Favaloro. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería; ArgentinaFil: Locatelli, Paola. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería. Fundación Favaloro. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería; ArgentinaFil: Riegler, Johannes. Stanford University School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Lee, Won Hee. Stanford University School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Jen, Cheng Hao. University of London; Reino UnidoFil: De Lorenzi, Andrea. Fundación Favaloro; ArgentinaFil: Giménez, Carlos Sebastián. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería. Fundación Favaloro. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería; ArgentinaFil: Laguens, Rubén. Universidad Favaloro; ArgentinaFil: Wu, Joseph C.. Stanford University School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Crottogini, Alberto José. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería. Fundación Favaloro. Instituto de Medicina Traslacional, Trasplante y Bioingeniería; Argentin

    Дослідження стану мікроциркуляції у щурів з експериментальною хронічною ішемією нижніх кінцівок при трансплантації мезенхімальних стромальних клітин

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    Хронические облитерирующие заболевания артерий нижних конечностей в Украине представляют серьёзную проблему. Целью данной работы было определить влияние мультипотентных мзенхимальных стромальных клеток костного мозга на ангиогенез нижних конечностей крыс при экспериментальной хронической ишемии. Результаты показали быстрое увеличение показателя микроциркуляции у тех крыс, которым выполнялась трансплантация мультипотентных мезенхимальных стромальных клеток костного мозга.Chronic lower limb ischemia represents a serious problem in Ukraine. The purpose of this work was to determine influence of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on rat‘s angiogenesis at experimental chronic ischemia. Rats of the Wistar-Kioto line were divided into 5 groups, 2 of which – with transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Results showed fast increase of microcirculation criteria of rats with transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    The Role of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Classical Dendritic Cells in the Maintenance and Regulation of the Bone Marrow Niche

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    The bone marrow niche is an important microenvironment for the regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. The first discovered niche component is mesenchymal stromal cells, which are the major source for the production and secretion of multiple niche factors. Mesenchymal stromal cells are heterogeneous and various transgenes have been used to target non-identical but overlapping subpopulations. To further characterize the heterogeneity of mesenchymal stromal cells, we tested the targeting specificity of three tissue-specific Cre-recombinase transgenes. We show that in addition to osteoblasts, Ocn-Cre targets a majority of Cxcl12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells and arteriolar pericytes. Surprisingly, Dmp1-Cre also targets a subset of CAR cells, in which expression of osteoblast-lineage genes is enriched. Moreover, a new tissue-specific Cre-recombinase, Tagln-Cre efficiently targets osteoblasts, a majority of CAR cells, and both venous sinusoidal and arteriolar pericytes. These observations highlight the heterogeneity of mesenchymal stromal cells in the bone marrow and provide tools to interrogate this heterogeneity. To further analyze the functional heterogeneity of mesenchymal stromal cells, we assessed the function of CXCL12 from different subsets of mesenchymal stromal cells on B lymphopoiesis. We show that CXCL12 from Ocn-Cre targeted stromal cells is particularly important for the regulation of mature naive B cells and memory B cells, potentially through the regulation of their homing and/or retention. This suggests that B cell development requires distinct niches at different stages and Ocn-Cre targeted stromal cells may represent a specific niche for late-stage B cell development. Besides mesenchymal stromal cells, this thesis also assesses the function of a recently identified resident population of murine bone marrow classical dendritic cells (BM cDCs). We show that BM cDC ablation results in a secondary, non-cell autonomous loss of BM macrophages. And more importantly, BM cDCs regulate hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell (HSPC) trafficking through a macrophage independent pathway, at least in part, through its regulation of sinusoidal CXCR2 signaling and vascular permeability. These findings suggest BM cDCs may serve as a novel bone marrow niche component regulating HSPCs. Collectively, this thesis improves on the overall understanding of the bone marrow niche and provides insights with significant relevance to both basic and clinical research

    Optimization of human mesenchymal stem cell manufacturing: the effects of animal/xeno-free media.

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    Due to their immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated for the treatment of immunological diseases. However, the animal-derived growth supplements utilized for MSC manufacturing may lead to clinical complications. Characterization of alternative media formulations is imperative for MSC therapeutic application. Human BMMSC and AdMSC were expanded in media supplemented with either human platelet lysates (HPL), serum-free media/xeno-free FDA-approved culture medium (SFM/XF), or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and the effects on their properties were investigated. The immunophenotype of resting and IFN-γ primed BMMSC and AdMSC remained unaltered in all media. Both HPL and SFM/XF increased the proliferation of BMMSC and AdMSC. Expansion of BMMSC and AdMSC in HPL increased their differentiation, compared to SFM/XF and FBS. Resting BMMSC and AdMSC, expanded in FBS or SFM/XF, demonstrated potent immunosuppressive properties in both non-primed and IFN-γ primed conditions, whereas HPL-expanded MSC exhibited diminished immunosuppressive properties. Finally, IFN-γ primed BMMSC and AdMSC expanded in SFM/XF and HPL expressed attenuated levels of IDO-1 compared to FBS. Herein, we provide strong evidence supporting the use of the FDA-approved SFM/XF medium, in contrast to the HPL medium, for the expansion of MSC towards therapeutic applications

    Multi-Parameter Analysis of Biobanked Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Shows Little Influence for Donor Age and Mild Comorbidities on Phenotypic and Functional Properties

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    Heterogeneous populations of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC) are among the most frequently tested cellular therapeutics for treating degenerative and immune disorders, which occur predominantly in the aging population. Currently, it is unclear whether advanced donor age and commonly associated comorbidities affect the properties of ex vivo-expanded BMSCs. Thus, we stratified cells from adult and elderly donors from our biobank (n = 10 and n = 13, mean age 38 and 72 years, respectively) and compared their phenotypic and functional performance, using multiple assays typically employed as minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We found that BMSCs from both cohorts meet the standard criteria for MSC, exhibiting similar morphology, growth kinetics, gene expression profiles, and pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive potential and the capacity to differentiate toward adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. We found no substantial differences between cells from the adult and elderly cohorts. As positive controls, we studied the impact of in vitro aging and inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Both conditions clearly affected the cellular properties, independent of donor age. We conclude that in vitro aging rather than in vivo donor aging influences BMSC characteristics
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