4,816 research outputs found

    Maternal risk factors for oral clefts: A case-control study

    Get PDF
    Introduction: A cleft lip with or without a cleft palate is one of the major congenital anomalies observed in newborns. This study explored the risk factors for oral clefts in Gorgan, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Gorgan, Northern Iran between April 2006 and December 2009. The case group contained 33 newborns with oral clefts and the control group contained 63 healthy newborns. Clinical and demographic factors, including date of birth, gender of the newborns, type of oral cleft, consanguinity of the parents, parental ethnicity, and the mother's parity, age, education and intake of folic acid were recorded for analysis. Results: A significant association was found between parity higher than 2 and the risk of an oral cleft (OR= 3.33, CI 95% [1.20, 9.19], P> 0.02). According to ethnicity, the odds ratio for oral clefts was 0.87 in Turkmens compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.25, 2.96]) and 1.11 in native Fars people compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.38, 3.20]). A lack of folic acid consumption was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts but this was not statistically significant (OR = 1.42, CI 95% [0.58, 3.49]). There were no significant associations between sex (OR boy/girl = 0.96, CI 95% [0.41, 2.23]), parent familial relations (OR = 1.07, CI 95% [0.43, 2.63]), mother's age and oral clefts. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly

    Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VII)

    Get PDF
    SummaryNeural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, including DK phocomelia syndrome (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome), Siegel-Bartlet syndrome, fetal warfarin syndrome, craniotelencephalic dysplasia, Czeizel-Losonci syndrome, maternal cocaine abuse, Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome, parietal foramina (cranium bifidum), Apert syndrome, craniomicromelic syndrome, XX-agonadism with multiple dysraphic lesions including omphalocele and NTDs, Fryns microphthalmia syndrome, Gershoni-Baruch syndrome, PHAVER syndrome, periconceptional vitamin B6 deficiency, and autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling

    Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Hypospadias

    Get PDF
    AbstractIntroduction: Epidemiological studies have elucidated maternal and fetal factors that are associated with an increased risk of hypospadias .This study examined the association of hypospadias risk with several maternal reproductive and demographic characteristics: age, parity, body mass index (BMI), nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, fertility treatments , education and diet .Materials and Methods: Mothers of children with hypospadias were invited to participate in this case control study. Participating mothers completed a self administered questionnaire or a social worker administered/assisted questionnaire. Mothers of age matched children without hypospadias acted as controls and they too similarly completed the same questionnaire.Results: The risk factors associated with hypospadias were maternal age, primiparity , previous fertility treatment and nausea and vomiting of pregnancy .Conclusions: Increased maternal age, primiparity and previous fertility treatments in mothers are associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in male offsprings.Keywords: Hypospadias, Maternal age, Parity, Fertility, Maternal education, Nausea and vomitin

    Accessing and affording child care and low-income mothers\u27 employment over time: An ecological approach

    Get PDF
    These two studies utilized a large, longitudinal random sample to examine the relationship between child problem behaviors and maternal risk factors and low-income mothers\u27 ability to access and afford child care, as well as how the ability to access and afford child care influences low-income mothers\u27 employment over time. Results showed that low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were significantly more likely to report a decreased ability to access and afford child care. Additionally, low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were more likely to become unemployed than to maintain employment over time. Policy implication and directions for future research are discussed

    Maternal risk factors for posterior urethral valves

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Posterior urethral valves (PUV) is a congenital disorder causing an obstruction of the lower urinary tract that affects approximately 1 in 4,000 male live births. PUV is considered a multifactorial disorder, meaning that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in its development. We investigated maternal risk factors for PUV. Methods: We included 407 PUV patients and 814 controls matched on year of birth from the AGORA data- and biobank and three participating hospitals. Information on potential risk factors (family history of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), season of conception, gravidity, subfertility, and conception using assisted reproductive techniques (ART), plus maternal age, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and use of alcohol and folic acid) was derived from maternal questionnaires. After multiple imputation, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression corrected for minimally sufficient sets of confounders determined using directed acyclic graphs. Results: A positive family history and low maternal age (&lt;25 years) were associated with PUV development [aORs: 3.3 and 1.7 with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.4–7.7 and 1.0–2.8, respectively], whereas higher maternal age (&gt;35 years) was associated with a lower risk (aOR: 0.7 95% CI: 0.4–1.0). Maternal preexisting hypertension seemed to increase PUV risk (aOR: 2.1 95% CI: 0.9–5.1), while gestational hypertension seemed to decrease this risk (aOR: 0.6 95% CI: 0.3–1.0). Concerning use of ART, the aORs for the different techniques were all above one, but with very wide 95% CIs including one. None of the other factors studied were associated with PUV development. Conclusion: Our study showed that family history of CAKUT, low maternal age, and potentially preexisting hypertension were associated with PUV development, whereas higher maternal age and gestational hypertension seemed to be associated with a lower risk. Maternal age and hypertension as well as the possible role of ART in the development of PUV require further research.</p

    Predicting severe neonatal jaundice from maternal risk factors

    Get PDF
    This is an invited speaker lecture on Predicting Severe Neonatal Jaundice from Maternal Risk Factors. Outline of Lecture : 1. Definition of Severe Neonatal Jaundice 2. Maternal Risk Factors 3. Propose possible calculation of Maternal Risk Factors 4. Check list prior to discharge a neonat

    Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as < 10<sup>th </sup>percentile and hypertrophy as > 90<sup>th </sup>percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a) predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal) and (b) predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms.</p

    Maternal Risk Factors and Birth Defects in Kirkuk City/Iraq

    Get PDF
    Background: Birth defects can be defined as those conditions that occur before or during birth. The purpose of this study was to find out the association between some maternal factors and birth defects, as well as to identify the socio-demographical characteristics of the child and the mother in Kirkuk city. Methodology:  A non-probability, descriptive (convenient) sampling technique was used to select (60) children that attending visits to two locations (Azadi Teaching Hospitals and Kirkuk Rehabilitation Center) in Kirkuk city from the period November 11th 2015 to May 5th 2016. The children age ranged from birth to 12 years old. An interview questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and chi-square. (p≤0.05) was considered statistically significant. Birth defects were grouped into cerebral palsy (CP), Erb’s palsy (EP) and Spina bifida (SB). Results: A total of 60 children were included. Of these 40 (66.7%)had cerebral palsy, 13 (21.7%) had Erb’s palsy and 7 (11.7%) had spina bifida. A significant association was found between some maternal risk factors, such as birth weight, maternal age at delivery, type of delivery, gravida, and birth defects. Conclusions and Recommendations: Some maternal factors can play a role in birth defects. Women need to attend antenatal care centers regularly to identify any abnormality. Further studies with larger samples are needed in the city of Kirkuk. Keywords: Birth defect, Risk factor, Maternal, Congenital malformatio

    Maternal risk factors in young Egyptian mothers of Down syndrome

    Get PDF
    Introduction: We investigated the possible maternal risk factors that mayincrease the incidence of Down syndrome (DS) in young Egyptian mothers(younger than 35 years) especially methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase(MTHFR) enzyme C677T polymorphism.Subjects and Methods: The study included 200 mothers of karyotypicallyascertained non-disjunction DS attending Genetics clinic, Children’s hospital, Ain Shams University (100 mothers were < 35 years and 100 mothers ≥ 35 years). 50 mothers of none-DS children served as a control group. For all cases, history was taken laying stress on: Parental ages at conception, maternal grandparent’s ages at conception of mother, DS birth order, history of oral contraceptive use 6 months before conception, genital infection, vitamin supplementation and smoking or exposure to irradiation.Results: MTHFR C677T mutational analysis was done to twenty DS motherswith ages ≤ 35 years revealed that 35% of young mothers had C677T mutation (10% had homozygous mutation and 25% had heterozygous mutation). MTHFR C677T polymorphism was found to be a possible maternal genetic risk factor for DS although statistically non-significant.Other maternal risk factors included the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) 6 months before pregnancy which was significantly higher only in DSmothers ≥ 35 years. on the other hand, parental consanguinity, maternal grandparents’ ages, the presence of genital infection and birth order did not show a significant difference between young and old mothers of DS.Conclusion: MTHFR C677T could not be considered as a maternal risk factor in young Egyptian mothers of DS. The risk effect may depend on gene-environment interaction between the genotype and dietary intake in particular folic acid consumption which should be further studied on a larger scale population including other MTHFR polymorphisms and environmental factors. Other risk factors may include the use of OCP in older mothers. Parents consanguinity, paternal age and maternal grandparents’ ages were not found to be risk factors in DS in this study.Keywords: Down syndrome, risk factors, mothers, MTHFR
    corecore