499,217 research outputs found

    Shipping Through Sea Ice: Impacts on Marine Habitats and Best Practices

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    As the result of Arctic climate change and an increase in shipping season length, there is a growing interest in Arctic shipping operations. Sea ice serves as an important habitat for marine mammals, therefore, shipping through sea ice could lead to increased negative interactions with ice-bound marine mammals. The following literature review discusses the impacts of icebreaking on marine mammals and habitats. These impacts include: avoidance of areas where icebreaking is occurring, behavioral and physiological impacts of increased anthropogenic noise, entrapment, habitat destruction and fragmentation, and oil spills

    Evidence of strong stabilizing effects on the evolution of boreoeutherian (Mammalia) dental proportions.

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    The dentition is an extremely important organ in mammals with variation in timing and sequence of eruption, crown morphology, and tooth size enabling a range of behavioral, dietary, and functional adaptations across the class. Within this suite of variable mammalian dental phenotypes, relative sizes of teeth reflect variation in the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. Two ratios of postcanine tooth lengths capture the relative size of premolars to molars (premolar-molar module, PMM), and among the three molars (molar module component, MMC), and are known to be heritable, independent of body size, and to vary significantly across primates. Here, we explore how these dental traits vary across mammals more broadly, focusing on terrestrial taxa in the clade of Boreoeutheria (Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria). We measured the postcanine teeth of N = 1,523 boreoeutherian mammals spanning six orders, 14 families, 36 genera, and 49 species to test hypotheses about associations between dental proportions and phylogenetic relatedness, diet, and life history in mammals. Boreoeutherian postcanine dental proportions sampled in this study carry conserved phylogenetic signal and are not associated with variation in diet. The incorporation of paleontological data provides further evidence that dental proportions may be slower to change than is dietary specialization. These results have implications for our understanding of dental variation and dietary adaptation in mammals

    Parenteral vaccination of mammalian livestock with Newcastle disease virus-based vector vaccines offers optimal efficacy and safety

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    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian virus that is being evaluated as a vaccine vector for the delivery of foreign genes in mammals. The use of NDV as a vaccine vector in these species offers two major advantages. First, NDV is highly attenuated in mammals, rendering its use inherently safe. Second, mammals lack pre-existing NDV immunity, which minimizes the risk of vaccination failure. NDV-vector vaccines are generally administered to mammals via the respiratory route. We recently showed that intramuscular vaccination with NDV-based Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) vaccines provides complete protection in mice and induces neutralizing antibodies in sheep and cattle, the main target species of RVFV. Here, we discuss the use of NDV as a vaccine vector for applications in mammalian livestock with an emphasis on the vaccination route. We also report the results of novel experiments that underscore our notion that vaccination via a parenteral route is more effective than immunization via the respiratory route

    Helminth fauna of Mt. Ontake. Part 2. Trematoda and Cestoda

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    I. Trematodes of mammals 1. Brachylaemus tokudai n. sp. 2. Acanthatrium ovatum Yamaguti, 1939 II. Cestodes of frogs 3. Baerietta montana n. sp. 4. Baerietta claviformis n. sp. III. Cestodes of· birds 5. Choanotaenia barbara Meggitt, 1926 IV. Cestodes of mammals 6. Hymenolepis apodemi n. sp.</p

    How large should whales be?

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    The evolution and distribution of species body sizes for terrestrial mammals is well-explained by a macroevolutionary tradeoff between short-term selective advantages and long-term extinction risks from increased species body size, unfolding above the 2g minimum size induced by thermoregulation in air. Here, we consider whether this same tradeoff, formalized as a constrained convection-reaction-diffusion system, can also explain the sizes of fully aquatic mammals, which have not previously been considered. By replacing the terrestrial minimum with a pelagic one, at roughly 7000g, the terrestrial mammal tradeoff model accurately predicts, with no tunable parameters, the observed body masses of all extant cetacean species, including the 175,000,000g Blue Whale. This strong agreement between theory and data suggests that a universal macroevolutionary tradeoff governs body size evolution for all mammals, regardless of their habitat. The dramatic sizes of cetaceans can thus be attributed mainly to the increased convective heat loss is water, which shifts the species size distribution upward and pushes its right tail into ranges inaccessible to terrestrial mammals. Under this macroevolutionary tradeoff, the largest expected species occurs where the rate at which smaller-bodied species move up into large-bodied niches approximately equals the rate at which extinction removes them.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, 2 data table
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