290,173 research outputs found

    Primordial magnetic fields

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    Large scale magnetic fields represent a triple point where cosmology, high-energy physics and astrophysics meet for different but related purposes. After reviewing the implications of large scale magnetic fields in these different areas, the role of primordial magnetic fields is discussed in various physical processes occurring prior to the decoupling epoch with particular attention to the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch and to the electroweak (EW) epoch. The generation of matter--antimatter isocurvature fluctuations, induced by hypermagnetic fields, is analyzed in light of a possible increase of extra-relativistic species at BBN. It is argued that stochastic GW backgrounds can be generated by hypermagnetic fields at the LISA frequency. The problem of the origin of large scale magnetic fields is also scrutinized.Comment: 41 pages in Latex style, 5 figure

    Three-magnetic fields

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    A completely new mechanism to generate the observed amount of large-scale cosmological magnetic fields is introduced in the context of three-form inflation. The amplification of the fields occurs via fourth order dynamics of the vector perturbations and avoids the backreaction problem that plagues most previously introduced mechanisms.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures -- v2 as published (title changed in the published version to "Cosmic magnetization in three-form inflation"

    Magnetic fields

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    Effects of high and low gradient magnetic fields on human performance for space flight application

    Planetary magnetic fields

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    As a consequence of the smallness of the electronic fine structure constant, the characteristic time scale for the free diffusive decay of a magnetic field in a planetary core is much less than the age of the Solar System, but the characteristic time scale for thermal diffusion is greater than the age of the Solar System. Consequently, primordial fields and permanent magnetism are small and the only means of providing a substantial planetary magnetic field is the dynamo process. This requires a large region which is fluid, electrically conducting and maintained in a non-uniform motion that includes a substantial RMS vertical component. The attributes of fluidity and conductivity are readily provided in the deep interiors of all planets and most satellites, either in the form of an Fe alloy with a low eutectic temperature (e.g. Fe-S-O in terrestrial bodies and satellites) or by the occupation of conduction states in fluid hydrogen or 'ice' (H2O-NH3-CH4) in giant planets. It is argued that planetary dynamos are almost certainly maintained by convection (compositional and/or thermal)

    Biermann Mechanism in Primordial Supernova Remnant and Seed Magnetic Fields

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    We study generation of magnetic fields by the Biermann mechanism in the pair-instability supernovae explosions of first stars. The Biermann mechanism produces magnetic fields in the shocked region between the bubble and interstellar medium (ISM), even if magnetic fields are absent initially. We perform a series of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the Biermann term and estimate the amplitude and total energy of the produced magnetic fields. We find that magnetic fields with amplitude 10−14−10−1710^{-14}-10^{-17} G are generated inside the bubble, though the amount of magnetic fields generated depend on specific values of initial conditions. This corresponds to magnetic fields of 1028−103110^{28}-10^{31} erg per each supernova remnant, which is strong enough to be the seed magnetic field for galactic and/or interstellar dynamo.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figure

    Magnetic Field Transfer From A Hidden Sector

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    Primordial magnetic fields in the dark sector can be transferred to magnetic fields in the visible sector due to a gauge kinetic mixing term. We show that the transfer occurs when the evolution of magnetic fields is dominated by dissipation due to finite electric conductivity, and does not occur at later times if the magnetic fields evolve according to magnetohydrodynamics scaling laws. The efficiency of the transfer is suppressed by not only the gauge kinetic mixing coupling but also the ratio between the large electric conductivity and the typical momentum of the magnetic fields. We find that the transfer gives nonzero visible magnetic fields today. However, without possible dynamo amplifications, the field transfer is not efficient enough to obtain the intergalactic magnetic fields suggested by the gamma-ray observations, although there are plenty of possibilities for efficient dark magnetogenesis, which are experimentally unconstrained.Comment: 26 pages, 2 figure
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