97,360 research outputs found

    Fatigue in inflammatory bowel disease: Understanding research needs through an exploratory narrative review

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    © 2019 MA Healthcare Ltd Aims: To summarise the main findings from research on current understanding of fatigue in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: A narrative review of relevant literature corresponding to IBD fatigue was conducted. Results: IBD fatigue is multidimensional and has a complex aetiology. The subjective nature and the lack of a standardised measure of fatigue add to the challenge of developing suitable and effective management methods. Although IBD fatigue is highlighted as a top-five priority research area by N-ECCO, it remains a complex and relatively unexplored area, especially when considering health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient experience. Conclusions: Research on the pathogenesis of IBD-related fatigue, effective measurement and its impact on IBD patients will allow the discovery of predictors of severe fatigue that requires clinical intervention, as well as the development of clear treatment pathways and structured support for IBD patients

    Microbial imbalance in inflammatory bowel disease patients at different taxonomic levels

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    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a debilitating group of chronic diseases including Crohn’s Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which causes inflammation of the gut and affects millions of people worldwide. At different taxonomic levels, the structure of the gut microbiota is significantly altered in IBD patients compared to that of healthy individuals. However, it is unclear how these IBD-affected bacterial groups are related to other common bacteria in the gut, and how they are connected across different disease conditions at the global scale. Results In this study, using faecal samples from patients with IBD, we show through diversity analysis of the microbial community structure based on the 16S rRNA gene that the gut microbiome of IBD patients is less diverse compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, we have identified which bacterial groups change in abundance in both CD and UC compared to healthy controls. A substantial imbalance was observed across four major bacterial phyla including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which together constitute >98% of the gut microbiota. Next, we reconstructed a bacterial family co-abundance network based on the correlation of abundance profiles obtained from the public gut microbiome data of >22000 samples of faecal and gut biopsies taken from both diseased and healthy individuals. The data was compiled using the EBI metagenomics database [1]. By mapping IBD-altered bacterial families to the network, we show that the bacterial families which exhibit an increased abundance in IBD conditions are not well connected to other groups, implying that these families generally do not coexist together with common gut organisms. Whereas, the bacterial families whose abundance is reduced or did not change in IBD conditions compared to healthy conditions are very well connected to other bacterial groups, suggesting they are highly important groups of bacteria in the gut that can coexist with other bacteria across a range of conditions. Conclusions IBD patients exhibited a less diverse gut microbiome compared to healthy individuals. Bacterial groups which changed in IBD patients were found to be groups which do not co-exist well with common commensal gut bacteria, whereas bacterial groups which did not change in patients with IBD were found to commonly co-exist with commensal gut microbiota. This gives a potential insight into the dynamics of the gut microbiota in patients with IBD

    The gut microbiota, bile acids and their correlation in primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

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    BACKGROUND: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) have a very high risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Alterations in the gut microbiota and/or gut bile acids could account for the increase in this risk. However, no studies have yet investigated the net result of cholestasis and a potentially altered bile acid pool interacting with a dysbiotic gut flora in the inflamed colon of PSC-IBD. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the gut microbiota and stool bile acid profiles, as well as and their correlation in patients with PSC-IBD and inflammatory bowel disease alone. METHODS: Thirty patients with extensive colitis (15 with concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis) were prospectively recruited and fresh stool samples were collected. The microbiota composition in stool was profiled using bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing. Stool bile acids were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The total stool bile acid pool was significantly reduced in PSC-IBD. Although no major differences were observed in the individual bile acid species in stool, their overall combination allowed a good separation between PSC-IBD and inflammatory bowel disease. Compared with inflammatory bowel disease alone, PSC-IBD patients demonstrated a different gut microbiota composition with enrichment in Ruminococcus and Fusobacterium genus compared with inflammatory bowel disease. At the operational taxonomic unit level major shifts were observed within the Firmicutes (73%) and Bacteroidetes phyla (17%). Specific microbiota-bile acid correlations were observed in PSC-IBD, where 12% of the operational taxonomic units strongly correlated with stool bile acids, compared with only 0.4% in non-PSC-IBD. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSC-IBD had distinct microbiota and microbiota-stool bile acid correlations as compared with inflammatory bowel disease. Whether these changes are associated with, or may predispose to, an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia needs to be further clarified.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Clinical Features and Risk Factors of Autoimmune Liver Involvement in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    OBJECTIVES:Autoimmune liver disease is reported in up to 7.8% of children with inflammatory bowel disease. A distinct inflammatory bowel disease phenotype has been suggested in adults and in small pediatric cohorts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the features of inflammatory bowel disease associated with autoimmune liver diseases and to analyze the characteristics of the liver disease. METHODS:Information on patients was obtained from the Italian Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Registry. Data of patients with and without autoimmune liver disease were compared. RESULTS:Autoimmune liver disease was detected in 6.8% of the 677 patients enrolled and was significantly associated with the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (83%), with pancolonic involvement (84%), and with perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity (41%) (all Ps < 0.05). Autoimmune liver disease was defined as sclerosing cholangitis in 61% of the patients and as an overlap syndrome in 33%. Concomitant intra- and extrahepatic biliary involvement was reported in 61% of cases, whereas exclusive extrahepatic lesions were reported in 21%. Hepatobiliary complications were observed in 9% of the patients during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Autoimmune liver disease, especially sclerosing cholangitis, was significantly more common in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. Although complications are relatively rare in the pediatric age, monitoring is recommended

    Health-Related Quality of Life in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    This book is dedicated to inflammatory bowel disease, and the authors discuss the advances in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, as well as several new parameters involved in the etiopathogeny of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, such as intestinal barrier dysfunction and the roles of TH 17 cells and IL 17 in the immune response in inflammatory bowel disease. The book also focuses on several relevant clinical points, such as pregnancy during inflammatory bowel disease and the health-related quality of life as an end point of the different treatments of the diseases. Finally, advances in management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease are discussed, especially in a complete review of the recent literature

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    This book is dedicated to inflammatory bowel disease, and the authors discuss the advances in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, as well as several new parameters involved in the etiopathogeny of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, such as intestinal barrier dysfunction and the roles of TH 17 cells and IL 17 in the immune response in inflammatory bowel disease. The book also focuses on several relevant clinical points, such as pregnancy during inflammatory bowel disease and the health-related quality of life as an end point of the different treatments of the diseases. Finally, advances in management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease are discussed, especially in a complete review of the recent literature
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