640,352 research outputs found

    Introduction of Potentially Allergenic Foods in the Infant's Diet during the First Year of Life in Five European Countries

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    Background: Little information is available on infants' age at first introduction of potentially allergenic foods as part of complementary feeding. We aimed to analyze age at the introduction of potentially allergenic foods in healthy term infants relative to recommendations in 5 European countries. Method: Recruitment was conducted from October 2002 to June 2004. A total of 1,678 infants {[}588 breastfed (BF) and 1,090 formula-fed (FF) infants] were studied. In 1,368 infants, at least one 3-day weighed food diary at the age of 1-9 and 12 completed months was available. Results: Six percent of BF infants and 13% of FF infants consumed some potentially allergenic food already prior to the recommended minimum age of 4 months, and 4% of BF infants and 11% of FF infants had already received gluten. There were significant differences in the timing of the introduction of potentially allergenic foods between the countries at the age of 4-6 months (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The time of first introduction of potentially allergenic foods in infants differed significantly between countries, and they were introduced much earlier than recommended in some countries. FF infants received potentially allergenic foods earlier than BF infants. Better information and counseling of parents is desirable. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Base

    The Effects of Dependent Infants on the Social Behavior of Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta Palliate)

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    Six weeks of observation on eight groups of wild mantled howler monkeys revealed that the presence of a dependent infant alters the frequency of social interactions between a female with an infant and other adult monkeys. Males preferred to spend time with females without infants but still spent more time with females with infants than with males. Females without infants spent significantly less time with females with infants than with males or other females without infants and females with infants decreased their frequency of social interaction overall without preference for males, females or other females with infants

    Synchrony, complexity and directiveness in mothers\u27 interactions with infants pre- and post-cochlear implantation

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    This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother–infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother–infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age = 13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age = 23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers’ utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants’ access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants’ word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation

    Household food insecurity positively associated with increased hospital charges for infants

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    Objective: To test whether household food insecurity (HFI) was associated with total annual hospitalization charges, annual days hospitalized, and charges per day, among low-income infants (months) with any non-neonatal hospital stays. Methods: Administrative inpatient hospital charge data were matched to survey data from infants\u27 caregivers interviewed 1998-2005 in emergency departments in Boston and Little Rock. All study infants had been hospitalized at least once since birth; infants whose diagnoses were not plausibly related to nutrition were excluded from both groups. Log-transformed hospitalization charges were analyzed, controlling for site fixed effects. Results: 24% of infants from food-insecure households and 16% from food-secure households were hospitalized \u3e2 times (P=0.02). Mean annual inpatient hospital charges (6,707vs6,707 vs 5,735; P Conclusion: HFI was positively associated with annual inpatient charges among hospitalized low income infants. Average annual inpatient charges were almost $2,000 higher (inflation adjusted) for infants living in food-insecure households. Reducing or eliminating food insecurity could reduce health services utilization and expenditures for infants in low-income families, most of whom are covered by public health insurance

    Probiotic administration in congenital heart disease: a pilot study.

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    ObjectiveTo investigate the impact of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis on the fecal microbiota and plasma cytokines in neonates with congenital heart disease.Study designSixteen infants with congenital heart disease were randomly assigned to receive either B. infantis (4.2 × 10(9) colony-forming units two times daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. Stool specimens from enrolled infants and from six term infants without heart disease were analyzed for microbial composition. Plasma cytokines were analyzed weekly in the infants with heart disease.ResultsHealthy control infants had increased total bacteria, total Bacteroidetes and total bifidobacteria compared to the infants with heart disease, but there were no significant differences between the placebo and probiotic groups. Plasma interleukin (IL)10, interferon (IFN)γ and IL1β levels were transiently higher in the probiotic group.ConclusionCongenital heart disease in infants is associated with dysbiosis. Probiotic B. infantis did not significantly alter the fecal microbiota. Alterations in plasma cytokines were found to be inconsistent

    Personal relatedness and attachment in infants of mothers with borderline personality disorder

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    The principal aim of this study was to assess personal relatedness and attachment patterns in 12-month-old infants of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also evaluated maternal intrusive insensitivity toward the infants in semistructured play. We videotaped 10 mother-infant dyads with borderline mothers and 22 dyads where the mothers were free from psychopathology, in three different settings: a modification of Winnicott's Set Situation in which infants faced an initially unresponsive ("still-face") stranger, who subsequently tried to engage the infant in a game of give and take; the Strange Situation of Ainsworth and Wittig; and a situation in which mothers were requested to teach their infants to play with miniature figures and a toy train. In relation to a set of a priori predictions, the results revealed significant group differences as follows: (a) compared with control infants, toward the stranger the infants of mothers with BPD showed lower levels of "availability for positive engagement," lower ratings of "behavior organization and mood state," and a lower proportion of interpersonally directed looks that were positive; (b) in the Strange Situation, a higher proportion (8 out of 10) of infants of borderline mothers were categorized as Disorganized; and (c) in play, mothers with BPD were rated as more "intrusively insensitive" toward their infants. The results are discussed in relation to hypotheses concerning the interpersonal relations of women with BPD, and possible implications for their infants' development

    Vitamin A and iron supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women benefits vitamin A status of their infants

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    Many Indonesian infants have an inadequate nutritional status, which may be due in part to inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy. This study was designed to investigate whether infant nutritional status could be improved by maternal vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation. Mothers of these infants from five villages had been randomly assigned on an individual basis, supervised and double-blind, to receive supplementation once weekly from approximately 18 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. Supplementation comprised 120 mg Fe and 500 μg folic acid with or without 4800 retinol equivalent vitamin A. Mothers of infants from four other villages who participated in the national Fe and folic acid supplementation programme were also recruited; intake of tablets was not supervised. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters of infants and their mothers were assessed approximately 4 months after delivery. Infants of mothers supplemented with vitamin A plus Fe had higher serum retinol concentrations than infants of mothers supplemented with Fe alone. However, the proportion of infants with serum retinol concentrations 70 n all groups. Maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations were correlated. Fe status, weight and length of infants were similar in all groups. Fe status of girls was better than that of boys, but boys were heavier and longer. We conclude that supplementation with vitamin A in conjunction with Fe supplementation of women during pregnancy benefits vitamin A status of their infants. However, considering the large proportion of infants with marginal serum retinol concentrations, it may still be necessary to increase their vitamin A intake
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