5,243,692 research outputs found

    Induced pluripotent stem cells, a giant leap for mankind therapeutic applications

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    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) technology has propelled the field of stem cells biology, providing new cells to explore the molecular mechanisms of pluripotency, cancer biology and aging. A major advantage of human iPSC, compared to the pluripotent embryonic stem cells, is that they can be generated from virtually any embryonic or adult somatic cell type without destruction of human blastocysts. In addition, iPSC can be generated from somatic cells harvested from normal individuals or patients, and used as a cellular tool to unravel mechanisms of human development and to model diseases in a manner not possible before. Besides these fundamental aspects of human biology and physiology that are revealed using iPSC or iPSC-derived cells, these cells hold an immense potential for cell-based therapies, and for the discovery of new or personalized pharmacological treatments for many disorders. Here, we review some of the current challenges and concerns about iPSC technology. We introduce the potential held by iPSC for research and development of novel health-related applications. We briefly present the efforts made by the scientific and clinical communities to create the necessary guidelines and regulations to achieve the highest quality standards in the procedures for iPSC generation, characterization and long-term preservation. Finally, we present some of the audacious and pioneer clinical trials in progress with iPSC-derived cells.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia management: Clinical experience and practical advice

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    Background: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is probably one of the most shocking aspects for oncological patients and underestimated by physicians. Among hair loss risk factors, there are treatment-related aspects such as drug dose, admin- istration regimen, and exposure to X-rays, but also patient-related characteristics. To the best of our knowledge, no guidelines are available about CIA management. Aims and methods: With this study, based on literature background and our clinical experience, we would like to propose a list of actions in order to estimate the risk of hair loss before starting chemotherapy and to manage this condition before, dur- ing, and after drug administration and to create a sort of practical guide for derma- tologists and oncologists. Results and conclusion: There is an urgent need for prospective studies to clarify the mechanistic basis of alopecia associated with these drugs and consequently to design evidence-based management strategies

    Ouabain-induced cytoplasmic vesicles and their role in cell volume maintenance

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    Cellular swelling is controlled by an active mechanism of cell volume regulation driven by a Na+/K+-dependent ATPase and by aquaporins which translocate water along the osmotic gradient. Na+/K+-pump may be blocked by ouabain, a digitalic derivative, by inhibition of ATP, or by drastic ion alterations of extracellular fluid. However, it has been observed that some tissues are still able to control their volume despite the presence of ouabain, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms of cell volume control. In 1977, by correlating electron microscopy observation with ion and water composition of liver slices incubated in differentmetabolic conditions in the presence or absence of ouabain, we observed that hepatocytes were able to control their volume extruding water and recovering ion composition in the presence of ouabain. In particular, hepatocytes were able to sequester ions and water in intracellular vesicles and then secrete themat the bile canaliculus pole.We named this “vesicularmechanismof cell volume control.” Afterward, thismechanism has been confirmed by us and other laboratories in several mammalian tissues.This review summarizes evidences regarding this mechanism, problems that are still pending, and questions that need to be answered. Finally, we shortly review the importance of cell volume control in some human pathological conditions

    Radiation-Induced Error Criticality in Modern HPC Parallel Accelerators

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    In this paper, we evaluate the error criticality of radiation-induced errors on modern High-Performance Computing (HPC) accelerators (Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA K40) through a dedicated set of metrics. We show that, as long as imprecise computing is concerned, the simple mismatch detection is not sufficient to evaluate and compare the radiation sensitivity of HPC devices and algorithms. Our analysis quantifies and qualifies radiation effects on applications’ output correlating the number of corrupted elements with their spatial locality. Also, we provide the mean relative error (dataset-wise) to evaluate radiation-induced error magnitude. We apply the selected metrics to experimental results obtained in various radiation test campaigns for a total of more than 400 hours of beam time per device. The amount of data we gathered allows us to evaluate the error criticality of a representative set of algorithms from HPC suites. Additionally, based on the characteristics of the tested algorithms, we draw generic reliability conclusions for broader classes of codes. We show that arithmetic operations are less critical for the K40, while Xeon Phi is more reliable when executing particles interactions solved through Finite Difference Methods. Finally, iterative stencil operations seem the most reliable on both architectures.This work was supported by the STIC-AmSud/CAPES scientific cooperation program under the EnergySFE research project grant 99999.007556/2015-02, EU H2020 Programme, and MCTI/RNP-Brazil under the HPC4E Project, grant agreement n° 689772. Tested K40 boards were donated thanks to Steve Keckler, Timothy Tsai, and Siva Hari from NVIDIA.Postprint (author's final draft

    Quench-induced Floquet topological p-wave superfluids

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    Ultracold atomic gases in two dimensions tuned close to a p-wave Feshbach resonance were expected to exhibit topological superfluidity, but these were found to be experimentally unstable. We show that one can induce a topological Floquet superfluid if weakly interacting atoms are brought suddenly close ("quenched") to such a resonance, in the time before the instability kicks in. The resulting superfluid possesses Majorana edge modes, yet differs from a conventional Floquet system as it is not driven externally. Instead, the periodic modulation is self-generated by the dynamics.Comment: 5+5 pages, 2 figure

    Determination of the cosmic-ray-induced neutron flux and ambient dose equivalent at flight altitude

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    Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volumen 630There is interest in modeling the atmosphere in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly in order to obtain information about the cosmic-ray induced neutron spectrum and angular distribution as functions of altitude. In this work we use the Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and Geant4 to determine the cosmic-ray-induced neutron flux in the atmosphere produced by the cosmic ray protons incident on the top of the atmosphere and to estimate the ambient dose equivalent rate as function of altitude. The results present a reasonable conformity to other codes (QARM and EXPACS) based on other parameterizations

    Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: formation of nanovoids

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    We report on the nanovoid formation inside synthetic silica, viosil, by single femtosecond pulses of 30–100nJ energy, 800nm wavelength, and 180fs duration. It is demonstrated that the void is formed as a result of shock and rarefaction waves at pulse power much lower than the threshold of self-focusing. The shock-compressed region around the nanovoid is demonstrated to have higher chemical reactivity. This was used to reveal the extent of the shock-compressed region by wet etching. Application potential of nanostructuring of dielectrics is discussed

    Modeling OpAmp-induced harmonic distortion for switched-capacitor ΣΔ modulator design

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    This communication reports a new modeling of opamp-induced harmonic distortion in SC ΣΔ modulators, which is aimed to optimum design of this kind of circuit for high-performance applications. We analyze incomplete transfer of charge in a SC integrator and use power expansion and nonlinear fitting to obtain analytical models to represent harmonic distortion as function of the opamp finite gain-bandwidth (GB), slew-rate (SR) and nonlinear DC gain. Calculated models apply for all modulator architectures where harmonic distortion is dominated by the first integrator in the chain. We show that results provided by the new analytical models fit well to that obtained by simulation in time domain and have accuracy levels much larger than that provided by previously reported modeling approaches

    Disorder-induced critical exponents near a ferromagnetic quantum critical point in Mn1−xCrxSi

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    We report the observation of critical behavior in Mn1−xCrxSi (0≤x≤1) close to a T = 0 K quantum critical point, consistent with the Belitz-Kirkpatrick-Vojta (BKV) theory of disordered metallic ferromagnets. The critical exponents are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the BKV theory in the preasymptotic limit. A non-Fermi liquid-like behavior is seen down to 200 mK in the transport and thermodynamic properties around the critical concentration xC = 0.2. Quantum criticality and self-consistency of the exponents is further confirmed using a scaling analysis of the magnetization and heat capacity data. A recovery to Fermi liquid-like behavior is displayed on moving away from the critical composition, as well as with the application of a magnetic field
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