8,062 research outputs found

    Desynchronizing effect of high-frequency stimulation in a generic cortical network model

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    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are two different applications of electrical current to the brain used in different areas of medicine. Both have a similar frequency dependence of their efficiency, with the most pronounced effects around 100Hz. We apply superthreshold electrical stimulation, specifically depolarizing DC current, interrupted at different frequencies, to a simple model of a population of cortical neurons which uses phenomenological descriptions of neurons by Izhikevich and synaptic connections on a similar level of sophistication. With this model, we are able to reproduce the optimal desynchronization around 100Hz, as well as to predict the full frequency dependence of the efficiency of desynchronization, and thereby to give a possible explanation for the action mechanism of TCES.Comment: 9 pages, figs included. Accepted for publication in Cognitive Neurodynamic

    Towards a computational model for stimulation of the Pedunculopontine nucleus

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    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has recently been suggested as a new therapeutic target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, particularly those with severe gait and postural impairment [1]. Stimulation at this site is typically delivered at low frequencies in contrast to the high frequency stimulation required for therapeutic benefit in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) [1]. Despite real therapeutic successes, the fundamental physiological mechanisms underlying the effect of DBS are still not understood. A hypothesis is that DBS masks the pathological synchronized firing patterns of the basal ganglia that characterize the Parkinsonian state with a regularized firing pattern. It remains unclear why stimulation of PPN should be applied with low frequency in contrast to the high frequency stimulation of STN. To get a better understanding of PPN stimulation we construct a computational model for the PPN Type I neurons in a network

    High-Frequency Stimulation of Excitable Cells and Networks

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    High-frequency (HF) stimulation has been shown to block conduction in excitable cells including neurons and cardiac myocytes. However, the precise mechanisms underlying conduction block are unclear. Using a multi-scale method, the influence of HF stimulation is investigated in the simplified FitzhHugh-Nagumo and biophysically-detailed Hodgkin-Huxley models. In both models, HF stimulation alters the amplitude and frequency of repetitive firing in response to a constant applied current and increases the threshold to evoke a single action potential in response to a brief applied current pulse. Further, the excitable cells cannot evoke a single action potential or fire repetitively above critical values for the HF stimulation amplitude. Analytical expressions for the critical values and thresholds are determined in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. In the Hodgkin-Huxley model, it is shown that HF stimulation alters the dynamics of ionic current gating, shifting the steady-state activation, inactivation, and time constant curves, suggesting several possible mechanisms for conduction block. Finally, we demonstrate that HF stimulation of a network of neurons reduces the electrical activity firing rate, increases network synchronization, and for a sufficiently large HF stimulation, leads to complete electrical quiescence. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to investigate HF stimulation in biophysically-detailed ionic models of excitable cells, demonstrate possible mechanisms for HF stimulation conduction block in neurons, and provide insight into the influence of HF stimulation on neural networks

    Slow-to-fast transitions in myosin expression of rat soleus muscle by phasic high-frequency stimulation

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    AbstractDenervated soleus muscles of euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats were exposed to phasic high-frequency stimulation for periods of up to 40 days and analysed for their myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. Denervation alone induced appreciable amounts of the fast MHCIId/x and minute amounts of MHCIIb. However, the effects of phasic high-frequency stimulation exceeded by far those of denervation, leading to marked increases of these two isoforms, as well as to pronounced decreases in slow MHCI. In addition, the present study suggested a greater impact of neural activity on myosin expression than thyroid hormone

    High-frequency stimulation of nucleus accumbens changes in dopaminergic reward circuit

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    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a potential remedial therapy for drug craving and relapse, but the mechanism is poorly understood. We investigated changes in neurotransmitter levels during high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the unilateral NAc on morphine-induced rats. Sixty adult Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: the control group (administration of saline), the morphine-only group (systematic administration of morphine without electrode implantation), the morphine-sham-stimulation group (systematic administration of morphine with electrode implantation but not given stimulation), the morphine-stimulation group (systematic administration of morphine with electrode implantation and stimulation) and the saline-stimulation group (administration of saline with electrode implantation and stimulation). The stimulation electrode was stereotaxically implanted into the core of unilateral NAc and microdialysis probes were unilaterally lowered into the ipsilateral ventral tegmental area (VTA), NAc, and ventral pallidum (VP). Samples from microdialysis probes in the ipsilateral VTA, NAc, and VP were analyzed for glutamate (Glu) and caminobutyric acid (GABA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The levels of Glu were increased in the ipsilateral NAc and VP of morphine-only group versus control group, whereas Glu levels were not significantly changed in the ipsilateral VTA. Furthermore, the levels of GABA decreased significantly in the ipsilateral NAc, VP, and VTA of morphineonly group when compared with control group. The profiles of increased Glu and reduced GABA in morphine-induced rats suggest that the presence of increased excitatory neurotransmission in these brain regions. The concentrations of the Glu significantly decreased while the levels of GABA increased in ipsilateral VTA, NAc, and VP in the morphine-stimulation group compared with the morphine-only group. No significant changes were seen in the morphine-sham stimulation group compared with the morphine-only group. These findings indicated that unilateral NAc stimulation inhibits the morphineinduced rats associated hyperactivation of excitatory neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit

    The Cannabinoid-Like Compound, VSN16R, Acts on Large Conductance, Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels to Modulate Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Firing

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    Large conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels are widely expressed in the central nervous system, where they regulate action potential duration, firing frequency and consequential neurotransmitter release. Moreover, drug action on, mutations to, or changes in expression levels of BKCa can modulate neuronal hyperexcitability. Amongst other potential mechanisms of action, cannabinoid compounds have recently been reported to activate BKCa channels. Here, we examined the effects of the cannabinoid-like compound (R,Z)-3-(6-(dimethylamino)-6-oxohex-1-en-1-yl)-N-(1-hydroxypropan-2-yl) benzamide (VSN16R) at CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal ex vivo brain slices using current clamp electrophysiology. We also investigated effects of the BKCa channel blockers iberiotoxin (IBTX) and the novel 7-pra-martentoxin (7-Pra-MarTx) on VSN16R action. VSN16R (100 μM) increased first and second fast after-hyperpolarization (fAHP) amplitude, decreased first and second inter spike interval (ISI) and shortened first action potential (AP) width under high frequency stimulation protocols in mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons. IBTX (100 nM) decreased first fAHP amplitude, increased second ISI and broadened first and second AP width under high frequency stimulation protocols; IBTX also broadened first and second AP width under low frequency stimulation protocols. IBTX blocked effects of VSN16R on fAHP amplitude and ISI. 7-Pra-MarTx (100 nM) had no significant effects on fAHP amplitude and ISI but, unlike IBTX, shortened first and second AP width under high frequency stimulation protocols; 7-Pra-MarTx also shortened second AP width under low frequency stimulation protocols. However, in the presence of 7-Pra-MarTx, VSN16R retained some effects on AP waveform under high frequency stimulation protocols; moreover, VSN16R effects were revealed under low frequency stimulation protocols. These findings demonstrate that VSN16R has effects in native hippocampal neurons consistent with its causing an increase in initial firing frequency via activation of IBTX-sensitive BKCa channels. The differential pharmacological effects described suggest that VSN16R may differentially target BKCa channel subtypes

    Long-term potentiation in frontal cortex: Role of NMDA-modulated polysynaptic excitatory pathways

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    The present study examined the role of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in synaptic plasticity in regular-spiking cells of rat frontal cortex. Intracortical stimulation, at levels subthreshold for elicitation of action potentials, evoked a late excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in layer II III neurons that was sensitive to the selective NMDA antagonist -2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). This late EPSP showed marked short-term frequency-dependent depression, suggesting that it is polysynaptic in origin. Polysynaptic late EPSPs were selectively enhanced following high-frequency stimulation. This sustained increase in synaptic efficacy, or long-term potentiation, was expressed in regular spiking cells and appeared to result from activation of NMDA receptors on excitatory interneurons. These data demonstrate the existence of an NMDA-modulated polysynaptic circuit in the neocortex which displays several types of use-dependent plasticity

    Doxorubicin-associated Cardiomyopathy: New Approaches to Pharmacological Correction Using 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) Propionate Derivatives

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    The cardioprotective effect of the derivatives (nicotinate, 5-hydroxynicotinate) of 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazini- um) propionate) and reference medicine meldonium in the case of doxorubicin (DOX) (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 48 hours) cardiomyopathy was evaluated by the results of a functional test with high-frequency stimulation (480 bpm