2 research outputs found

    Unaltered liver regeneration in post‐cholestatic rats treated with the fxr agonist obeticholic acid

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    In a previous study, obeticholic acid (OCA) increased liver growth before partial hepatectomy (PHx) in rats through the bile acid receptor farnesoid X‐receptor (FXR). In that model, OCA was administered during obstructive cholestasis. However, patients normally undergo PHx several days after biliary drainage. The effects of OCA on liver regeneration were therefore studied in post‐cholestatic Wistar rats. Rats underwent sham surgery or reversible bile duct ligation (rBDL), which was relieved after 7 days. PHx was performed one day after restoration of bile flow. Rats received 10 mg/kg OCA per day or were fed vehicle from restoration of bile flow until sacrifice 5 days after PHx. Liver regeneration was comparable between cholestatic and non‐cholestatic livers in PHx‐subjected rats, which paralleled liver regeneration a human validation cohort. OCA treatment induced ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression but did not enhance post‐PHx hepatocyte proliferation through FXR/SHP signaling. OCA treatment neither increased mitosis rates nor recovery of liver weight after PHx but accelerated liver regrowth in rats that had not been subjected to rBDL. OCA did not increase biliary injury. Conclusively, OCA does not induce liver regeneration in post‐cholestatic rats and does not exacerbate biliary damage that results from cholestasis. This study challenges the previously reported beneficial effects of OCA in li

    Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

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    This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2) and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA) reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP) are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein