1,612,386 research outputs found

    Europe's growth emergency

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    The European Union growth agenda has become even more pressing because growth is needed to support public and private sector deleveraging, reduce the fragility of the banking sector, counter the falling behind of southern European countries and prove that Europe is still a worthwhile place to invest. The crisis has a similar impact on most European countries and the US: a persistent drop in output level and a growth slowdown. This contrasts sharply with the experience of the emerging countries of Asia and Latin America. Productivity improvement was immediate in the US, but Europe hoarded labour and productivity improvements were in general delayed. Southern European countries have hardly adjusted so far. There is a negative feedback loop between the crisis and growth, and without effective solutions to overturn the crisis, growth is unlikely to resume. National and EU level policies should aim to foster reforms and adjustment and should not risk medium term objectives under the pressure of events. A more hands-on approach, including industrial policies, should be considered. Earlier versions of this Policy Contribution were presented at the Bruegel-PIIE conference on Transatlantic economic challenges in an era of growing multipolarity, Berlin, 27 September 2011, and at the BEPA-Polish Presidency conference on Sources of growth in Europe, Brussels, 6 October 2011.

    Smart hospital emergency system via mobile-based requesting services

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    In recent years, the UK’s emergency call and response has shown elements of great strain as of today. The strain on emergency call systems estimated by a 9 million calls (including both landline and mobile) made in 2014 alone. Coupled with an increasing population and cuts in government funding, this has resulted in lower percentages of emergency response vehicles at hand and longer response times. In this paper, we highlight the main challenges of emergency services and overview of previous solutions. In addition, we propose a new system call Smart Hospital Emergency System (SHES). The main aim of SHES is to save lives through improving communications between patient and emergency services. Utilising the latest of technologies and algorithms within SHES is aiming to increase emergency communication throughput, while reducing emergency call systems issues and making the process of emergency response more efficient. Utilising health data held within a personal smartphone, and internal tracked data (GPU, Accelerometer, Gyroscope etc.), SHES aims to process the mentioned data efficiently, and securely, through automatic communications with emergency services, ultimately reducing communication bottlenecks. Live video-streaming through real-time video communication protocols is also a focus of SHES to improve initial communications between emergency services and patients. A prototype of this system has been developed. The system has been evaluated by a preliminary usability, reliability, and communication performance study

    Optimization on emergency materials dispatching considering the characteristics of integrated emergency response for large-scale marine oil spills

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    Many governments have been strengthening the construction of hardware facilities and equipment to prevent and control marine oil spills. However, in order to deal with large-scale marine oil spills more efficiently, emergency materials dispatching algorithm still needs further optimization. The present study presents a methodology for emergency materials dispatching optimization based on four steps, combined with the construction of Chinese oil spill response capacity. First, the present emergency response procedure for large-scale marine oil spills should be analyzed. Second, in accordance with different grade accidents, the demands of all kinds of emergency materials are replaced by an equivalent volume that can unify the units. Third, constraint conditions of the emergency materials dispatching optimization model should be presented, and the objective function of the model should be postulated with the purpose of minimizing the largest sailing time of all oil spill emergency disposal vessels, and the difference in sailing time among vessels that belong to the same emergency materials collection and distribution point. Finally, the present study applies a toolbox and optimization solver to optimize the emergency materials dispatching problem. A calculation example is presented, highlighting the sensibility of the results at different grades of oil spills. The present research would be helpful for emergency managers in tackling an efficient materials dispatching scheme, while considering the integrated emergency response procedure.Peer ReviewedPostprint (published version

    Emergency preparedness and response in New Zealand schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Emergency Management at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

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    International disaster risk reduction efforts prioritise school safety. Providing a safe learning environment for students and ensuring their continued access to education after an emergency has a positive influence on student, family, and community resilience. Existing school-based emergency management literature is limited. The project aimed to investigate current emergency preparedness and response activities in New Zealand schools, and identify key practices that support efforts to keep students safe during emergencies. A multiphase mixed methods research design, underpinned by a pragmatic philosophical approach, was employed to conduct three separate but linked studies that investigated: Emergency preparedness in schools (Study 1); Emergency management requirements and expectations of schools (Study 2); and Emergency response in schools (Study 3). Study 1 employed a survey to collect quantitative (n=355) and qualitative (n=514) data from schools throughout New Zealand about their experiences participating in the nationwide 2012 New Zealand ShakeOut earthquake drill, and the types of emergency preparedness activities undertaken. Findings identified lessons learned, and presented ways in which drills can be linked to other aspects of school preparedness. Schools were also found to undertake a range of preparedness activities (e.g., develop emergency plans, conduct frequent drills, and provide students with hazards education). However, differences in preparedness levels were identified, suggesting that some schools may be under-prepared to keep students safe in emergencies. A lack of clarity in the legislative requirements for school-based emergency management was proposed as a possible reason for differences in preparedness. Study 2 combined interviews of three emergency management practitioners with a review of New Zealand legislation, policy, and guidelines to identify the preparedness activities New Zealand schools are required to undertake to ensure the safety of the students in their care. The legislation was found to be generic, at times ambiguous, and schools were not provided with clear guidance. As a result, it was recommended that preparedness benchmarks be established and that standard operating procedures for core emergency response actions (i.e., shelter-in-place, lockdown, building evacuation, relocation, and family reunification) be developed to provide a consistent approach to school-based preparedness efforts. Studies 1 and 2 discussed emergency preparedness in New Zealand schools. However, there remained a need to investigate the link between preparing for and responding to emergencies by investigating how schools responded to real emergency events. Study 3 used three case studies to explore how three schools responded in a range of emergency events. Findings included the identification of generic, recurring response activities across a selection of emergency types, which were used to develop a six-stage school-based emergency response model. The lessons learned from participant’s first hand experiences of various emergency events enabled the identification of factors that contribute to an effective emergency response, including activities undertaken before, during, and after an emergency. Research exploring emergency management in New Zealand schools is still in its infancy. This project has contributed significant knowledge to understanding how New Zealand schools prepare for and respond to emergencies to keep their students safe. Findings from the research may also have relevance for an international audience

    Maximizing Ferries in New York City's Emergency Management Planning

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    In addition to providing fast, efficient, and enjoyable public transportation under normal circumstances, ferries have consistently proven to be the most resilient mode of transit during and after emergencies. Lacking reliance on either a fixed route or the electrical grid, ferries have historically been deployed for speedy evacuations from no-notice emergency situations. Moreover, ferries are typically the first mode of transportation to resume service during prolonged transit outages, relieving New Yorkers -- particularly in communities lacking bus and subway access -- from an extended transit paralysis.In spite of ferries' utility in emergency management, they are presently underutilized in New York's waterways. This paper is a call to action to policymakers and city officials to redefine ferries as critical emergency management assets. In doing so, the City will not only be equipped for a robust, interconnected ferry transit network, but it will also be prepared to facilitate effective waterborne evacuation and transit recovery. This paper makes eight key recommendations for maximizing the role of ferries in citywide emergency preparedness:1. Increase capacity for waterborne evacuation by expanding inter-borough ferry service.2. Provide ferry crews with emergency personnel identification.3. Prioritize reimbursements to ferry operators when allocating federal and state emergency relief funds.4. Fully integrate ferries with mass transit to facilitate seamless regional mobility.5. Coordinate all regional ferry infrastructures -- including all boats and landings -- as one unified system of emergency management.6. Develop coastal design standards to equip New York's shoreline for emergency response.7. Establish a Department of the Waterfront -- a new city agency -- and house a Waterfront Emergency Management division within it to coordinate long-term planning and preparedness efforts.8. Considering ferries as essential emergency management assets, apply for government emergency preparedness and recovery grants for coastal retrofitting and additional tie-up sites

    A Continuous Review Inventory System with Lost Sales and Emergency Orders

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    We analyze a continuous review lost sales inventory system with two types of orders—regular and emergency. The regular order has a stochastic lead time and is placed with the cheapest acceptable supplier. The emergency order has a deterministic lead time is placed with a local supplier who has a higher price. The emergency order is not always filled since the supplier may not have the ability to provide the order on an emergency basis at all times. This emergency order has a higher cost per item and has a known probability of being filled. The total costs for this system are compared to a system without emergency placement of orders. This paper provides managers with a tool to assess when dual sourcing is cost optimal by comparing the single sourcing and dual sourcing models

    Accessing emergency rest centres in the UK - lesson learnt

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    Emergency rest centres (ERC) are premises that are used for the temporary accommodation of evacuees during an emergency situation. They form an important part of emergency response, by providing a focal point for receiving people and providing food, shelter, information and support. The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 creates a legislative right for ‘reasonable’ access to goods and services for disabled people. This legislation does not differentiate between emergency and non emergency situations which means that those with a responsibility for emergency planning need to consider the accessibility of ERCs. This article examines ERC provision and reviews access for disabled people. It focuses on a study of three ERCs that were established in different local authority areas within the Yorkshire and Humber region in the UK during a flooding event on 25th June 2007. While uncovering many instances of good practise, the results from the research also identified a number of lessons to be learnt, in particular it was noted that the main barriers to access were encountered with: ‱ Facilities and elements that did not comprise part of the buildings normal operation, such as the provision of bedding, medical assistance and effective communication; and ‱ Facilities that would not normally be expected to be used to the extent, or duration, whilst the emergency rest centre was in operation, such as the provision of adequate welfare facilities. The research also noted that Civil Protection Legislation within the UK contains limited instruction or guidance to those with responsibility for Emergency Rest Centre provision. This provides little impetus for Emergency Planners to consider the needs of disabled people. This research has broad implications for local authorities and national government representatives. It identifies a need for those with responsibility for emergency planning and response to strengthen their knowledge of disabled people, and to adopt a more holistic approach to the provision of emergency planning and response

    An observational study of patient characteristics associated with the mode of admission to acute stroke services in North East, England

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    Objective Effective provision of urgent stroke care relies upon admission to hospital by emergency ambulance and may involve pre-hospital redirection. The proportion and characteristics of patients who do not arrive by emergency ambulance and their impact on service efficiency is unclear. To assist in the planning of regional stroke services we examined the volume, characteristics and prognosis of patients according to the mode of presentation to local services. Study design and setting A prospective regional database of consecutive acute stroke admissions was conducted in North East, England between 01/09/10-30/09/11. Case ascertainment and transport mode were checked against hospital coding and ambulance dispatch databases. Results Twelve acute stroke units contributed data for a mean of 10.7 months. 2792/3131 (89%) patients received a diagnosis of stroke within 24 hours of admission: 2002 arrivals by emergency ambulance; 538 by private transport or non-emergency ambulance; 252 unknown mode. Emergency ambulance patients were older (76 vs 69 years), more likely to be from institutional care (10% vs 1%) and experiencing total anterior circulation symptoms (27% vs 6%). Thrombolysis treatment was commoner following emergency admission (11% vs 4%). However patients attending without emergency ambulance had lower inpatient mortality (2% vs 18%), a lower rate of institutionalisation (1% vs 6%) and less need for daily carers (7% vs 16%). 149/155 (96%) of highly dependent patients were admitted by emergency ambulance, but none received thrombolysis. Conclusion Presentations of new stroke without emergency ambulance involvement were not unusual but were associated with a better outcome due to younger age, milder neurological impairment and lower levels of pre-stroke dependency. Most patients with a high level of pre-stroke dependency arrived by emergency ambulance but did not receive thrombolysis. It is important to be aware of easily identifiable demographic groups that differ in their potential to gain from different service configurations

    Emergency Preparedness Among Older Adults in Issaquah, Washington

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    Presented to the Faculty Of the University of Alaska Anchorage In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTHUsing the Health Belief Model, this project practicum explored emergency preparedness through interviews with fourteen study participants sixty-five years old or older and three key informants. The goals of this project practicum were to understand the potential needs of adults sixty-five years old and older in an emergency or disaster and to improve the effectiveness of emergency outreach education and messaging. Prior storm experience and reported time living in Issaquah appeared to influence preparedness activity among study participants. Exposure to media and emergency preparedness messaging appeared to have a lesser effect on emergency preparedness activity. Project practicum results suggest that help from neighbors, friends, and family may be the best way to keep vulnerable older adults safe in an emergency or disaster. Thus, these neighbors, friends, and family need to know about emergency preparedness even though it seems to be less effective than life experience. The City of Issaquah appears to be on the right track educating people with its Map Your Neighborhood, Citizen Emergency Response Team training program, and its emergency preparedness booths at community events.Signature Page / Title Page / Abstract / Table of Contents / List of Figures and Appendices / Acknowledgements / Chapter 1: Background and Review of Literature / Chapter 2: Goals and Objectives / Chapter 3: Methods and Analysis / Chapter 4: Results / Chapter 5: Discussion / Chapter 6: Public Health Implications and Recommendations / References / Appendice

    UNF Coronavirus Information 2021

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    General information about the campus response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the 4 Key Pillars of Shared Responsibility
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