338,414 research outputs found

    What Can Quantitative Gait Analysis Tell Us about Dementia and Its Subtypes? A Structured Review

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    Distinguishing dementia subtypes can be difficult due to similarities in clinical presentation. There is increasing interest in discrete gait characteristics as markers to aid diagnostic algorithms in dementia. This structured review explores the differences in quantitative gait characteristics between dementia and healthy controls, and between four dementia subtypes under single-task conditions: Alzheimer鈥檚 disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson鈥檚 disease dementia, and vascular dementia. Twenty-six papers out of an initial 5,211 were reviewed and interpreted using a validated model of gait. Dementia was associated with gait characteristics grouped by slower pace, impaired rhythm, and increased variability compared to normal aging. Only four studies compared two or more dementia subtypes. People with AD are less impaired in pace, rhythm, and variability domains of gait compared to non-AD dementias. Results demonstrate the potential of gait as a clinical marker to discriminate between dementia subtypes. Larger studies using a more comprehensive battery of gait characteristics and better characterized dementia sub-types are required

    An evaluation of the role of the Admiral Nurse : a systematic evidence synthesis to inform service delivery and research

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    Two thirds of people with dementia live in the community and receive support from family members. There is a great deal of evidence to suggest that caring for a person with dementia impacts on the health and wellbeing of family carers. Despite this the provision of funded support for family carers is often limited or inadequate. Admiral Nurses, developed in the 1990s, were specifically designed by the charity for dementia (now Dementia UK) to support the family carers of people with dementia. Admiral Nurses are mental health nurses specialising in the care of people with dementia. They are mainly employed by local providers of care for people with dementia but dementia UK is involved in setting up new posts and providing ongoing practice development. There are currently around 100 Admiral Nurses employed in England. In addition the charity has a national helpline provided by experienced Admiral Nurses. The evidence synthesis presented here was commissioned by Dementia UK in order to establish what is currently known about the scope, nature and effectiveness of Admiral Nurse

    Finding a way: long-term care homes to support dementia

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    An ageing demographic has increased the number of people with dementia. Although dementia is commonly associated with memory loss, other early symptoms include difficulty with wayfinding. Dementia alters visuo-spatial perception and the processes used to interpret the physical environment. The role of the design of the physical environment for people with dementia has gained increased recognition. Despite this, design for dementia is often overlooked, focusing on issues relating to physical impairment. This paper presents the results of a PhD study and aims to examine the role of the design of the physical environment in supporting wayfinding for people with dementia living in long-term care settings in Northern Ireland. Mixed methods combined the observation of wayfinding walks and conversational style interviews to elicit perspectives and experiences of residents with dementia. The findings aim to promote well-being for those with dementia living in long-term care settings

    Care of the person with dementia : interprofessional practice and education

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    Care of the Person with Dementia responds to the urgent need for health practitioners to take an innovative approach to the challenge of dementia. The first Australian text of its kind, it combines evidence-based resources with interprofessional education and practice, exploring the ethical, social and environmental repercussions of dementia to provide a comprehensive overview of dementia care in an Australian context. The text is structured around a model of interprofessional education and practice (IPE) tailored to dementia care. This model incorporates the context of care, an important element missing from other recognised models of IPE. Throughout the book, principles of IPE are explained within the context of dementia, drawing on exemplars from a body of current, well-researched and evaluated dementia practice. Written by experienced academics, and providing national and international perspectives, this is a unique and crucial resource to develop collaborative skills and professional knowledge in the management of dementia

    Evaluating educational initiatives to improve palliative care for people with dementia: A narrative review.

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    Dementia accounts for one in three deaths among people aged 65 and over, but end-of-life care for people with dementia is often sub-optimal. Palliative care for people with dementia poses particular challenges to those providing services, and current policy initiatives recommend education and training in palliative care for those working with patients with dementia. However, there are few evaluations of the effectiveness of dementia education and training. This paper presents a narrative review undertaken in 2011-2012 of evaluations of palliative care education for those working with people with dementia at the end of life. A total of eight papers were identified that described and evaluated such palliative care education; none reported benefits for people with dementia. There is a clear need to develop and evaluate educational interventions designed to improve palliative and end-of-life care for people with dementia. Some suggestions for educationally sound approaches are discussed

    Dementia Prevalence Estimates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Comparison of two Diagnostic Criteria.

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    We have previously reported the prevalence of dementia in older adults living in the rural Hai district of Tanzania according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence rates using the DSM-IV criteria with those obtained using the 10/66 diagnostic criteria, which is specifically designed for use in low- and middle-income countries. In phase I, 1,198 people aged 70 and older were screened for dementia. A stratified sample of 296 was then clinically assessed for dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria. In addition, data were collected according to the protocol of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group, which allowed a separate diagnosis of dementia according to these criteria to be established. The age-standardised prevalence of clinical DSM-IV dementia was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-7.9%) and of '10/66 dementia' was 21.6% (95% CI 17.5-25.7%). Education was a significant predictor of '10/66 dementia', but not of DSM-IV dementia. There are large discrepancies in dementia prevalence rates depending on which diagnostic system is used. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, it is not clear whether the association between education and dementia using the 10/66 criteria is a genuine effect or the result of an educational bias within the diagnostic instrument. Despite its possible flaws, the DSM-IV criteria represent an international standard for dementia diagnosis. The 10/66 diagnostic criteria may be more appropriate when identification of early and mild cognitive impairment is required

    Development and Validation of eRADAR: A Tool Using EHR Data to Detect Unrecognized Dementia.

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    ObjectivesEarly recognition of dementia would allow patients and their families to receive care earlier in the disease process, potentially improving care management and patient outcomes, yet nearly half of patients with dementia are undiagnosed. Our aim was to develop and validate an electronic health record (EHR)-based tool to help detect patients with unrecognized dementia (EHR Risk of Alzheimer's and Dementia Assessment Rule [eRADAR]).DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingKaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA), an integrated healthcare delivery system.ParticipantsA total of 16 665 visits among 4330 participants in the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study, who undergo a comprehensive process to detect and diagnose dementia every 2鈥墆ears and have linked KPWA EHR data, divided into development (70%) and validation (30%) samples.MeasurementsEHR predictors included demographics, medical diagnoses, vital signs, healthcare utilization, and medications within the previous 2鈥墆ears. Unrecognized dementia was defined as detection in ACT before documentation in the KPWA EHR (ie, lack of dementia or memory loss diagnosis codes or dementia medication fills).ResultsOverall, 1015 ACT visits resulted in a diagnosis of incident dementia, of which 498 (49%) were unrecognized in the KPWA EHR. The final 31-predictor model included markers of dementia-related symptoms (eg, psychosis diagnoses, antidepressant fills), healthcare utilization pattern (eg, emergency department visits), and dementia risk factors (eg, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes). Discrimination was good in the development (C statistic = .78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .76-.81) and validation (C statistic = .81; 95% CI = .78-.84) samples, and calibration was good based on plots of predicted vs observed risk. If patients with scores in the top 5% were flagged for additional evaluation, we estimate that 1 in 6 would have dementia.ConclusionThe eRADAR tool uses existing EHR data to detect patients with good accuracy who may have unrecognized dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:103-111, 2019

    Dementia, music and biometric gaming: Rising to the Dementia Challenge

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    In 2012, the U.K. government launched its Dementia Challenge, authorizing additional funding for dementia research and health care. The search for curative medicines is ongoing, but scientific research reveals evidence that music can play a positive role in general health, and in dementia and Alzheimer鈥檚 disease in particular. This article considers whether some of the challenges that dementia presents could be addressed through music therapy and proposes that biometric gaming might offer one means of channeling such associated health benefits to sufferers of dementia, even in the final stages of the disease

    Supporting general hospital staff to provide dementia sensitive care: A realist evaluation

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    漏 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0).Background: There are an increasing number of interventions to improve hospital care for patients with dementia. Evidence for their impact on staff actions and patient outcomes is, however, limited and context dependent. Objective: To explain the factors that support hospital staff to provide dementia sensitive care and with what outcomes for patients with dementia. Design: A realist evaluation using a two-site case study approach. Setting: Two hospital trusts in the East of England. Site 1 had a ward for patients with dementia that would address their medical and mental health needs. Site 2 used a team of healthcare assistants, who had support from dementia specialist nurses, to work with patients with dementia across the hospital. Participants: Hospital staff who had a responsibility for inpatients with dementia (healthcare assistants, nurses, medical staff, allied healthcare professionals and support staff) (n = 36), patients with dementia (n = 28), and family carers of patients with dementia (n = 2). Methods: A three stage realist evaluation: 1) building the programme theory of what works and when; 2) testing the programme theory through empirical data (80 h non-participant observation, 42 interviews, 28 patient medical notes, 27 neuropsychiatric inventory, and documentary review); 3) synthesis and verification of findings with key stakeholders. Findings: The programme theory comprised six interconnected context-mechanism-outcome configurations: 1) knowledge and authority to respond to an unmet need; 2) role relevant training and opportunities for reflection; 3) clinical experts and senior staff promoting practices that are patient-focused; 4) engaging with opportunities to spend time with patients; 5) risk management as an opportunity for person-centred care; 6) valuing dementia care as skilled work. Effective interactions reduced patient distress and supported patient orientation. Training and allocation of staff time were of themselves insufficient to ensure dementia care was prioritised and valued as skilled work. Staff concerns about the consequences of adverse incidents and work pressures on the ward, even with support, took precedence and influenced the quality of their interactions with patients with dementia. A key finding linked to staff retention and developing capacity in the workforce to provide expert dementia care was that despite extra training and organisational endorsement, nursing staff did not regard dementia care as skilled nursing work. Conclusions: There is increased awareness and organisational commitment to dementia-friendly healthcare in general hospitals. However, in addition to training and adapting the environment to the patient, further work is needed to make explicit the specialist skills required for effective dementia care.Peer reviewe
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