122,416 research outputs found

    Cost Benefit Analysis of the Community Patent

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    The creation of a European Community Patent (COMPAT) came a step closer this month when Sweden brokered a preliminary agreement on the issue. In this working paper, Senior Resident Fellow Bruno van Pottelsberghe and Jérôme Danguy use simulations to take a look at the advantages, disadvantages, winners and losers from the creation of the COMPAT. They find that it would drastically reduce the relative patenting costs for applicants while generating more income for the European Patent Office and increased savings for the business sector. They also explain that the lost of economic rents for patent attorneys, translators and lawyers specialised in patent litigation and the drop of controlling power for national patent offices may explain why there has been such resistance to the COMPAT thus far.

    Cost Benefit Analysis Taman Kuliner Condongcatur, Depok, Sleman, YOGYAKARTA

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    This article describes about Benefit Cost Analysis development of Taman Kuliner Condongcatur. It was found that there are three actors performing important roles in the development of Taman KulinerCondongcatur: Sleman regency government, stall tenants, and people surround the court. Of the actors, there was benefit cost which was spent and received as the consequence of Taman Kuliner. The cost and benefit earned by both Sleman Regency and the tenants were far from expectation. The net benefit cost received by Sleman regency government was negative Rp. 271.670.000,-. The net benefit cost received by stall tenants was positive Rp. 57.684.000,-. The indirect cost which cannot be measured with money was the people's losing job. The indirect benefits were labor force absorption and the availability of means and infrastructures of art and socio-cultural performance to the society

    Reliabilty and Cost Benefit Analysis of DG Integrated Distribution System

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    Integration of Distributed generation (DG) results in a number of advantages ranging from reduction in losses to delayed generation and transmission capacities. In this paper the impact of DGs on reliability is considered and their effect on reliability in terms of number and location is evaluated. The integration of DG changes configuration of the radial system. This point is considered for evaluating the load point indices. The cost effectiveness of number of DGs is evaluated for the determining the returns on the DG investment cost. The above analysis is carried out on a RBTS Bus 2 system. The reliability indices are calculated using FMEA technique

    PRINCIPLES OF COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

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    This paper summarizes the procedure for the economic evaluation of government projects and policy reforms. It begins with the social welfare function underpinnings of cost-benefit analysis including the role of distributive weights and the choice of numeraire. It then turns to the conduct of a social cost-benefit analysis using the net present value criterion. This includes the shadow pricing of market products and inputs affected by the project, indirect welfare effects, the opportunity cost of project finance, the evaluation of non-marketed inputs and outputs, and the opportunity cost of risk. Issues involved in selecting a discount rate are discussed, especially those arising from imperfect capital markets. Finally, since many public projects have long-term consequences, the principles that might be used to take account of effects of projects on future generations are outlined. Techniques for accounting for these effects, such as generational accounting, are summarized and its shortcomings highlighted.evaluation, government projects, policy reforms, imperfect capital markets, generational accounting, shadow pricing

    Cost benefit analysis vs. referenda

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    We consider a planner who chooses between two possible public policies and ask whether a referendum or a cost benefit analysis leads to higher welfare. We find that a referendum leads to higher welfare than a cost benefit analyses in "common value" environments. Cost benefit analysis is better in "private value" environments.Cost benefit analysis, elections, referenda, project evaluation

    Cost-Benefit Analysis Under Uncertainty

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    In what follows we provide a conceptually correct procedure for determining whether a risky project passes the "potential Pareto improvement" welfare criterion which forms the normative basis of cost-benefit analysis. In this approach the role of secondary markets in providing opportunities for redistributing risk is made transparent and the modifications necessary when such markets do not exist are suggested.

    Cost-benefit analysis and valuation uncertainty

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    This thesis addresses the economic trade-offs between hydropower and fish production, based on an empirical assessment of the costs and benefits of changing the water flow of the Ume/Vindel River in northern Sweden at a major hydropower plant in ways that would reduce its production of electricity but increase the number of wild salmon in the river. A theoretical framework for dynamic cost benefit analysis (CBA) is presented and applied to the salmon passage-hydropower production conflict. The approach has wider applicability than suggested here, and should be useful in other, similar contexts. To obtain estimates for the benefit of increasing the number of wild salmon the contingent valuation method (CVM) was applied. The CVM is a survey-based method developed for measuring values of non-market goods by using willingness to pay (WTP) questions. A new open-ended valuation question, the “classic and interval open-ended” (CIOE) question, was introduced to accommodate the fact that many people have an inability to state their preferences accurately. Interpretation of the resulting valuation uncertainty is more straightforward with this type of question than with other types of valuation question. There are other advantages as well. In addition, methods are introduced for: finding a WTP point estimate for the CIOE question; estimating lower and upper boundaries for the WTP; and for estimating confidence intervals for the total present benefit. An important element of the empirical analysis is that estimated changes in resource conditions are based on detailed river-specific data. The resource dynamic considerations were introduced into both the scenarios and the WTP questions, using an estimated salmon population model for the Vindel River as a base. A model predicting the effects of varying the water flows on the salmon’s migration behaviour was used to estimate the costs of increasing the number of salmon. A total of 1785 individuals received a questionnaire including the CIOE question; the response rate was 66%. Passive use (non-use) values are the major contributors to the benefit (96-517 MSEK) of increasing the wild salmon stock in the Vindel River. The sensitivity analysis suggests that the opportunity costs in terms of lost electricity are typically higher than the estimated benefits

    Cost-Benefit Analysis of Reclaiming Futures

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    Assesses the costs of RWJF's initiative to improve substance abuse interventions for youth with improved service delivery, cooperation, and family involvement; estimates behavior change and reduction in juvenile crime; and considers returns on scale

    Bisphosphonates : a cost benefit analysis patient

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    Introduction: Osteoporotic hip fractures are common in elderly. There is increased risk of sustaining other fractures that incur financial burden on the health system. Prescription of bisphosphonates after osteoporotic hip fracture surgery has been shown to reduce the overall incidence of re-fractures. Methods: All osteoporotic hip fractures treated surgically in Mater Dei Hospital in the year 2011 were analysed in this observational retrospective study. The inclusion criteria were all primary osteoporotic hip fractures. The initiation, or not, of anti-osteoporotic treatment upon discharge from hospital was reviewed. The mortality and re-fracture rate of this cohort was reviewed for a period of 3 years. The cost of hospitalization for hip fracture and re-fractures was calculated based on local health services costs and compared to the benefits of providing a free bisphosphonate medication to each patient. Results: The osteoporotic hip fracture care pathway did not include initiation of anti-osteoporotic therapy after operations. A re-fracture rate of 11.7% over three years predominantly in female patients was observed. In the first year following hip fracture, an estimated direct medical health expenditure due to re-fractures was of €37,642.55 - €48,835.19. Conclusion: Prescribing a bisphosphonate has been found to reduce both the re-fracture and mortality rates. In our study, a bisphosphonate prescription could have reduced the all cause mortality rate of 25.3% to 15.18% over the first year of hip fracture, as well as reduced the financial and social burden incurred due to a re-fracture.peer-reviewe
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