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    Implications for science and governance | In conclusion 28 In conclusion

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    lessons relearnt The first volume of Late lessons from early warnings was published in 2001. Since then, the world has changed significantly. It is larger in population but smaller in interconnectivity; faster in terms of technology adoption but slower in terms of policy action in the face of complex interlinked problems; more volatile in terms of economic and environmental changes, yet more static in terms of political reflexivity and adaptations in governance. Beyond the current financial and economic crises, there are several long-term, systemic and interconnected challenges, such as depletion of natural resources, climate change, a 2-billion person increase in the world population by 2050

    Changes of Physico–Chemical Properties of Pig Slurry During Storage

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    This study was aimed to determine changes of the characteristics of raw pig slurry as liquid organic fertilizer at various storage times. A completely randomized design was used in this research. The treatments were storage times, i.e.: 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. Variables observed were loss of the slurry, degree of acidity (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), total phosphate (TP), and dissolve reactive phosphate (DRP). The results showed that storage time significantly affected all the observed variables, except the concentration of NO3-N and total phosphate content. The pH, TS, VS, DRP, and losses of slurry lost during storage times increased, while EC, TN, NH3-N, tCOD, and sCOD decreased. Physico-chemical properties of slurry during storage times changed, as a result of organic matter breakdown

    Consumption changes, not income changes, predict changes in subjective well-being

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    Does happiness depend on what one earns or what one spends? Income is typically found to have small beneficial effects on well-being. However, economic theory suggests that well-being is conferred not by income but by consumption (i.e., spending on goods and services), and a person’s level of consumption may differ greatly from their level of income due to saving behavior and taxation. Moreover, research within consumer psychology has established relationships between people’s spending in specific categories and their well-being. Here we show for the first time using panel data that changes in life satisfaction are associated with changes in consumption, not changes in income. We also find some evidence that increased conspicuous consumption is more strongly associated with improved well-being than is increased nonconspicuous consumption

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    Changes in Sexuality of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Under Hormone Therapy in Japan: a Case Study

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    Background: Hormone therapy is an important treatment for male patients with prostate cancer. However, it can produce changes in the genitalia and sexuality of the patients. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relations between changes in male genitalia and sexuality in the castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. It also proposed concrete interventions to ease pain and fear towards body image changes. Methods: This study used a descriptive qualitative design. The subjects were two castration-resistant prostate cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using verbatim reports and content analysis. Results: The study indicated that the effects of hormone therapy treatment on the sexuality were largely categorized as: “surprises and anxieties about the shrinkage of male genitalia”, “masculinity loss”, “difficulty adapting the situation”, and “connection with others”. Conclusion: It became clear that the prostate cancer patients had pains not only for prognosis, but also for physical changes, relationship changes with others and sexuality changes through their treatments

    Fuzzy changes-in-changes

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    Changes in gait during constant pace treadmill running.

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    Treadmills are often used by runners when weather conditions are adverse or a specific training effect is desired. Athletes might respond to fatigue differently when running on a treadmill compared with overground conditions, where pace is typically more variable. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in gait parameters over the course of a 10-km treadmill run. Fifteen male competitive runners ran at a constant pace for 10 km at 103% of season's best time on an instrumented treadmill with in-dwelling force plates, and data were analyzed at 5 distances. Kinematic data were derived from high-speed videography and results compared between the early and late stages. Before halfway, step length increased and cadence decreased, whereas during the latter stages, there were significant decreases in impulse and maximum force. Contact time decreased and flight time increased continually, but otherwise most gait variables did not change. The changes in contact and flight times suggested that athletes altered their gait so that more time was spent airborne to allow the treadmill to pass under them. In general, however, the runners maintained their techniques throughout the run. Constant pace treadmill running might therefore be useful with the aim of running for a particular distance and speed with a consistent technique unaffected by factors such as gradient or fatigue. However, the increase in flight time might have aided the runners because of the nature of treadmill running, and athletes and coaches should note that this training effect is impractical during overground running

    Seasonal changes in microbial dissolved organic sulfur transformations in coastal waters

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    The marine trace gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the single most important biogenic source of atmospheric sulfur, accounting for up to 80% of global biogenic sulfur emissions. Approximately 300 million tons of DMS are produced annually, but the majority is degraded by microbes in seawater. The DMS precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and oxidation product dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) are also important organic sulfur reservoirs. However, the marine sinks of dissolved DMSO remain unknown. We used a novel combination of stable and radiotracers to determine seasonal changes in multiple dissolved organic sulfur transformation rates to ascertain whether microbial uptake of dissolved DMSO was a significant loss pathway. Surface concentrations of DMS ranged from 0.5 to 17.0 nM with biological consumption rates between 2.4 and 40.8 nM·d−1. DMS produced from the reduction of DMSO was not a significant process. Surface concentrations of total DMSO ranged from 2.3 to 102 nM with biological consumption of dissolved DMSO between 2.9 and 111 nM·d−1. Comparisons between 14C2-DMSO assimilation and dissimilation rates suggest that the majority of dissolved DMSO was respired (>94%). Radiotracer microbial consumption rates suggest that dissimilation of dissolved DMSO to CO2 can be a significant loss pathway in coastal waters, illustrating the significance of bacteria in controlling organic sulfur seawater concentrations
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